Cognitive Psychology For Dummies
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Understanding long-term memory is essential in cognitive psychology. Long-term memory isn’t a unitary structure ‒ many different types of memory exist, which can independently be damaged due to brain injury. Research suggests the existence of the following different types of memory:

  • Episodic memory: A conscious declarative (verbalisable) memory store for recent events that have occurred.

  • Autobiographic memory: A declarative memory for all life events that have happened to you, usually important ones that are highly personal and emotional.

  • Semantic memory: A declarative memory for all facts that you’ve accumulated throughout your lifetime.

  • Procedural memory: An unconscious non-declarative memory for every skill or behaviour that you have.

  • Priming: A non-declarative memory store due to the repetition of information and its effect on behaviour and perception.

  • Associative learning: A non-declarative memory for unconscious associations formed between things and conditioned learning (learning based on linking two stimuli ‒ such as light and sound ‒ together sometimes with a reward).

  • Non-associative learning: A non-declarative memory store for habits.

    The different types of long-term memory.
    The different types of long-term memory.

About This Article

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About the book authors:

Dr Peter J. Hills, PhD, is a principal lecturer and Head of Education in psychology at Bournemouth University. Dr J Michael Pake is a senior lecturer in Psychology at Anglia Ruskin University.

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