EMT Exam Practice Questions about Medical and Obstetrics/Gynecology Fundamentals - dummies

EMT Exam Practice Questions about Medical and Obstetrics/Gynecology Fundamentals

By Arthur Hsieh

The following practice questions are similar to the EMT exam’s questions about medical fundamentals. Read each question carefully, and then select the answer choice that most correctly answers the question.

Sample questions

  1. A 50-year-old female is alert but has difficulty speaking clearly and is unable to sit up by herself. She has difficulty raising her right arm when compared to the left. She has a history of diabetes and takes insulin every day. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her presentation?

    • (A)Hypoglycemia

    • (B)Stroke

    • (C)Generalized seizure

    • (D)Spinal cord disorder

  2. A young adult male presents on the floor of a public bathroom. His skin is warm, diaphoretic, and pale. He responds to painful stimulus by attempting to roll away. There is a scant amount of blood-tinged sputum around his mouth, and he is breathing deeply at 20 times per minute. What should you do next?

    • (A)Position him on his side and suction with a rigid catheter.

    • (B)Position him supine and assist his ventilations with a bag-valve mask and oxygen.

    • (C)Sit him up and provide supplemental oxygen.

    • (D)Apply spinal precautions and immobilize to a board.

  3. Family members report that an elderly male has garbled speech, difficulty swallowing, and a right-sided facial droop. They also report a similar episode a week earlier that went away on its own. He has a history of diabetes and hypertension. Which of the following treatment plans is most appropriate?

    • (A)Encourage the patient to drink orange juice to increase his blood sugar level, reevaluate mental status, and transport if necessary.

    • (B)Suggest that the patient is experiencing a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and assist in making arrangements to have patient seen at an urgent care center.

    • (C)Suggest immediate transport to an emergency department capable of managing acute stroke.

    • (D)Perform a detailed physical examination to determine whether there are any related injuries, immobilize if necessary, and transport to the patient’s preferred hospital.

  4. A 22-year-old male is at a party when he experiences rapid onset of a severe headache, left ear ringing, and nausea. You find him vomiting in the bathroom and unable to stand. You detect the odor of alcohol on his breath and his pupils are constricted. Which of the following conditions is most likely causing this presentation?

    • (A)Seizure

    • (B)Alcohol poisoning

    • (C)Drug overdose

    • (D)Stroke

  5. After transporting a patient with a fever, vomiting, and a productive cough, what would be the best way for you to reduce the chance of being infected?

    • (A)Hose down the interior of the ambulance with hot water.

    • (B)Wash your hands with soap and water.

    • (C)Spray your hands and face with disinfectant.

    • (D)Leave the patient compartment fan on for several hours.

  6. A 67-year-old male has abdominal pain and is cool, diaphoretic, and pale after vomiting several times over 20 minutes. There is a large amount of emesis that is dark red in color. You suspect that the bleeding is most likely due to

    • (A)a peptic ulcer.

    • (B)esophageal varices.

    • (C)peritonitis.

    • (D)liver disease.

  7. An adult female is curled up on her couch, complaining of severe abdominal pain. The pain is spread throughout her abdomen and hurts worse when she coughs. She has a fever and is nauseous. You suspect her presentation is due to

    • (A)ectopic pregnancy.

    • (B)pancreatitis.

    • (C)dehydration.

    • (D)peritonitis.

  8. A 40-year-old female has a rapid onset of sharp, right upper abdominal pain that radiates to her shoulder blades. She is nauseous but does not need to vomit. Her last meal was about 45 minutes ago. She takes medications for a peptic ulcer. You suspect that she is experiencing

    • (A)a new ulcer.

    • (B)acute coronary syndrome.

    • (C)a gallbladder attack.

    • (D)a bowel obstruction.

  9. An elderly male is complaining of feeling faint and short of breath during a dialysis treatment. His radial pulse is weak and rapid. His skin is cool, dry, and pale. His breathing is rapid and shallow. You should

    • (A)discontinue dialysis, position the patient supine, and administer supplemental oxygen.

    • (B)complete dialysis while monitoring the patient’s vital signs closely.

    • (C)place the patient in a sitting position, maintain his body temperature, and finish the dialysis treatment.

    • (D)have the patient drink fluids and eat a sandwich while the staff discontinues the dialysis treatment.

Answers and explanations

  1. B. Hypoglycemia, this patient doesn’t have an altered mental status.

  2. A. He is breathing with an adequate rate and tidal volume, so use of a bag-valve mask isn’t necessary.

  3. C. Although it’s possible that the patient may be experiencing hypoglycemia, the presenting signs also point toward an acute stroke, which requires rapid intervention at a stroke receiving hospital.

  4. D. The patient’s signs are consistent with a hemorrhagic stroke.

  5. B. The best way to break the chain of infection is with consistent hand washing, Choice (B). The other choices are either unrealistic, ineffective, or, frankly, dangerous.

  6. B. A peptic ulcer, Choice (A), bleeds within the stomach, where the blood is digested by the stomach’s acid. This causes any hematemesis to appear dark and have a coffee-ground-like texture.

  7. D. Peritonitis, Choice (D), is the inflammation of the peritoneum, which hurts worse when stretched. Curling into a fetal position helps reduce the stretching and the associated pain.

  8. C. The signs and symptoms are most related to cholecystitis, or inflammation of the gallbladder, Choice (C). The condition worsens shortly after a meal that’s high in fat.

  9. A. The patient is showing signs of shock, possibly from too much fluid being removed by dialysis.