An Overview of the Body’s Main Systems for the EMT Exam

By Arthur Hsieh

You need to review several organ systems for the EMT exam. Each is comprised of a series of organs and structures, which in turn has a unique series of functions. As an EMT, you should be knowledgeable about a few structures. Here’s an overview of each system. You may want to take a moment to review them now.

System Major Organs and Structures Main Functions
Nervous Brain, spinal cord, nerves Fast, short-acting control system Conscious thought
Gastrointestinal Mouth, teeth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines,
liver, gallbladder, pancreas, appendix, rectum, anus
Digestion — break down food and absorb nutrients Absorb
water Excrete unused food components and unwanted solid waste
products
Immune Thymus, bone marrow Protection from foreign substances and organisms, such as
allergens and infections
Endocrine Pancreas, ovaries, testes Slow, long-acting control system
Hematologic Red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells
(leukocytes), platelets, plasma
Carry oxygen and nutrients to cells and remove carbon dioxide
and waste
Urinary Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra Regulate water balance Excrete unwanted liquid wastes
Reproductive Male: Testes, urethra, penisFemale: Ovaries, uterus, fallopian
tubes, vagina, mammary glands
Reproduction (sperm production for males; egg development,
ovulation, and pregnancy for females)Secondary sex characteristics
(deeper voice, greater muscle growth for males; breast development,
higher voice for females)