SPSS Statistics For Dummies, 4th Edition
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Level of measurement defines which summary statistics and graphs should be used. The following table provides definitions, examples, appropriate summary statistics, and graphs for variables based on their level of measurement.
Nominal Ordinal Scale
Definition Unordered categories Ordered categories Both interval and ratio
Examples Gender, geographic location, job category Satisfaction ratings, income groups, ranking of preferences Number of purchases, cholesterol level, age
Measures of Central Tendency Mode Median Median or mean
Measures of Dispersion None Min/max/range Min/max/range, Standard deviation/ variance
Graph Pie or bar Bar Histogram

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Jesus Salcedo is an independent statistical and data-mining consultant who has been using SPSS products for more than 25 years. He has written numerous SPSS courses and trained thousands of users. Keith McCormick has been all over the world training and consulting in all things SPSS, statistics, and data mining. He now authors courses on the LinkedIn Learning platform and coaches executives on how to effectively manage their analytics teams.

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