## Some Excel worksheet functions for statistical analysis

Excel can help you make all sorts of calculations. Here’s a selection of Excel’s statistical worksheet functions. Each one returns a value into a selected cell.

Check out these functions for central tendency and variability:

Function | What it calculates |

AVERAGE | Mean of a set of numbers |

AVERAGEIF | Mean of a set of numbers that meet a condition |

AVERAGEIFS | Mean of a set of numbers that meet one or more conditions |

HARMEAN | Harmonic mean of a set of positive numbers |

GEOMEAN | Geometric mean of a set of positive numbers |

MODE.SNGL | Mode of a set of numbers |

MEDIAN | Median of a set of numbers |

VAR.P | Variance of a set of numbers considered to be a population |

VAR.S | Variance of a set of numbers considered to be a sample |

STDEV.P | Standard deviation of a set of numbers considered to be a population |

STDEV.S | Standard deviation of a set of numbers considered to be a sample |

STANDARDIZE | A standard score based on a given mean and standard deviation |

These handy functions for relative standing can also be very useful:

Function | What it calculates |

RANK.EQ | Rank of a number in a set of numbers. If more than one number has the same rank, it returns the top rank of those numbers. |

RANK.AVG | Rank of a number in a set of numbers. If more than one number has the same rank, it returns their average. |

PERCENTRANK.INC | Rank of a number in a set of numbers, expressed as a percent of the numbers it’s greater than or equal to. |

PERCENTRANT.EXC | Rank of a number in a set of numbers, expressed as a percent of the numbers it’s greater than. |

PERCENTILE.INC | The indicated percentile in a set of numbers, in terms of “greater than or equal to.” |

PERCENTILE.EXC | The indicated percentile in a set of numbers, in terms of “greater than.” |

QUARTILE.INC | The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th quartile of a set of numbers, in terms of “greater than or equal to.” |

QUARTILE.EXC | The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th quartile of a set of numbers, in terms of “greater than.” |

These functions for correlation and regression are also good ones to know:

Function | What it Calculates |

CORREL | Correlation coefficient between two sets of numbers |

PEARSON | Same as CORREL. (Go figure!) |

RSQ | Coefficient of determination between two sets of numbers (square of the correlation coefficient) |

SLOPE | Slope of a regression line through two sets of numbers |

INTERCEPT | Intercept of a regression line through two sets of numbers |

STEYX | Standard error of estimate for a regression line through two sets of numbers |

## Excel array functions for statistical analysis

An array formula calculates a set of values rather than just one. Here are Excel’s statistical array functions. Each one returns an array of values into a selected array of cells.

In the Microsoft 365 version of Excel, you select one cell, enter the formula, press Enter, and the remaining values spill into the remaining cells of the array.

Function | Calculates An Array Of … |

FREQUENCY | Frequencies of values in a set of values |

MODE.MULT | Modes of a set of numbers |

LINEST | Regression statistics based on linear regression through two or more sets of numbers |

LOGEST | Regression statistics based on curvilinear regression through two or more sets of numbers |

TREND | Numbers in a linear trend, based on known data points |

GROWTH | Numbers in a curvilinear trend, based on known data points |

## Excel data analysis tools

Excel’s Analysis ToolPak is a helpful add-in that provides an extensive set of statistical analysis tools. Here are some of the tools in the ToolPak. Note that the final tool, Logistic Regression, is in XLMiner’s Analysis ToolPak, not Excel’s.

Tool | What it Does |

Anova: Single Factor | Analysis of variance for two or more samples |

Anova: Two Factor with Replication | Analysis of variance with two independent variables, and multiple observations in each combination of the levels of the variables. |

Anova: Two Factor without Replication | Analysis of variance with two independent variables, and one observation in each combination of the levels of the variables. You can use it for Repeated Measures ANOVA. |

Correlation | With more than two measurements on a sample of individuals, calculates a matrix of correlation coefficients for all possible pairs of the measurements |

Covariance | With more than two measurements on a sample of individuals, calculates a matrix of covariances for all possible pairs of the measurements |

Descriptive Statistics | Generates a report of central tendency, variability, and other characteristics of values in the selected range of cells |

Exponential Smoothing | In a sequence of values, calculates a prediction based on a preceding set of values, and on a prior prediction for those values |

F-Test Two Sample for Variances | Performs an F-test to compare two variances |

Histogram | Tabulates individual and cumulative frequencies for values in the selected range of cells |

Moving Average | In a sequence of values, calculates a prediction which is the average of a specified number of preceding values |

Random Number Generation | Provides a specified amount of random numbers generated from one of seven possible distributions |

Rank and Percentile | Creates a table that shows the ordinal rank and the percentage rank of each value in a set of values |

Regression | Creates a report of the regression statistics based on linear regression through a set of data containing one dependent variable and one or more independent variables |

Sampling | Creates a sample from the values in a specified range of cells |

Logistic Regression (in the XLMiner Analysis ToolPak, **not **Excel’s Analysis ToolPak) creates a report of regression statistics based on logistic regression through a set of data consisting of a quantitative independent variable and a dependent variable whose values can only be 0 or 1.