Botany For Dummies
Book image
Explore Book Buy On Amazon
Botany is the study of plants. Plants are very similar to people in a lot of ways, but they also have some differences that can be hard to wrap your brain around. And, like any science class, botany can get a little overwhelming at times. So, here are a few items to help you grasp some of the big ideas in botany.

Parts of a flower

Flowers can be unisexual, having only male or female parts, or bisexual, having both types of parts. The male parts of a flower make up the stamens. The entire whorl of stamens in the flower is called the androecium.

The sac-like structures at the top of the stamen are the anthers. The anthers house pollen, which contain the male gametophytes that make the sperm. The thread-like stalks that lift the anthers up are called filaments.

The female parts of the flower make up the pistils. The entire whorl of pistils in the flower, which may be separate or fused together, is called the gynoecium.

The sticky tips at the top of the pistils that receive pollen are called stigmas. The swollen bases of the pistils are the ovaries. Inside the ovaries are tiny pearl-like structures called ovules. The ovules contain the female gametophytes, which make the eggs. The slender stalks that connect each stigma to an ovary are called styles.

Types of plant tissues

Plant tissues come in several forms: vascular, epidermal, ground, and meristematic. Each type of tissue consists of different types of cells, has different functions, and is located in different places.

Tissue Cell Types Function Locations
Vascular tissue Xylem is made up of vessels and tracheids
Phloem is made up of sieve cells and companion cells
Xylem transports water
Phloem transports sugars
In stems, leaves, and roots
Epidermal tissue Parenchyma Protect plant tissues and prevent water loss Outer layer of stems, roots, and leaves
Ground tissue Parenchyma
Makes up bulk of plant mass Stems, roots, leaves
Meristematic tissue Parenchyma Divide to produce new growth Tips of shoots
Tips of roots
In buds
In a ring around the stem in woody plants

About This Article

This article is from the book:

About the book author:

Rene Fester Kratz, PhD is a Biology instructor at Everett Community College. As a member of the North Cascades and Olympic Science Partnership, she worked to develop science curricula that are in alignment with research on human learning.

This article can be found in the category: