How to Identify Chiral Centers in a Molecule
Chiral molecules usually contain at least one carbon atom with four nonidentical substituents. Such a carbon atom is called a chiral center (or sometimes a stereogenic center), using organic-speak. Any molecule that contains a chiral center will be chiral (with the exception of a meso compound). For example, the compound shown here contains a carbon atom with four nonidentical substituents; this carbon atom is a chiral center, and the molecule itself is chiral, because it’s nonsuperimposable on its mirror image.
You need to be able to quickly spot chiral centers in molecules. All straight-chain alkyl group carbons (CH3 or CH2 units) will not be chiral centers because these groups have two or more identical groups (the hydrogens) attached to the carbons. Neither will carbons on double or triple bonds be chiral centers because they can’t have bonds to four different groups. When looking at a molecule, look for carbons that are substituted with four different groups. See, for example, if you can spot the two chiral centers in the molecule shown here.
Because CH3 and CH2 groups cannot be chiral centers, this molecule has only three carbons that could be chiral centers. The two leftmost possibilities, identified in the next figure, have four nonidentical groups and are chiral centers, but the one on the far right has two identical methyl (CH3) groups and so is not a chiral center.