The Differences among Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotic Microorganisms
There are three domains of life: Bacteria (also known as Eubacteria), Archaea, and Eukarya. The Bacteria and Archaea are made up entirely of microorganisms; the Eukarya contains plants, animals, and microorganisms such as fungi and protists. The Bacteria and Archaea have been grouped together and called Prokaryotes because of their lack of a nucleus, but the Archaea are more closely related to the Eukaryotes than to the Bacteria. Here are other major differences between the three domains.
|Cell wall||Made of peptidoglycan||Does not contain peptidoglycan||In plants and fungi, composed of polysaccharides|
|Sensitivity to antibiotics||Yes||No||No|
|First amino acid during protein synthesis||Formylmethionine||Methionine||Methionine|
|DNA||Mostly circular chromosome and plasmids||Circular chromosome and plasmids||Linear chromosome, rarely plasmids|