Devices, Linux File Systems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

By Emmett Dulaney

The Linux+ certification exam from CompTIA covers the topic of file systems and hierarchy standards. This table shows the subtopics, weights, descriptions, and key knowledge areas for this topic.

Breakout of Domain 104
Subtopic Weight Description Key Areas
Create partitions and file-systems 2 Configure disk partitions Use various mkfs commands to set-up
partitions and create file-systems
Maintain the integrity of file-systems 2 Maintain a standard file-system and the extra data associated
with journaling
File-system monitoring, integrity, and repair
Control mounting and unmounting of file-systems 3 Configure the mounting of file-systems Manually mount and unmount and configure removable
Manage disk quotas 1 Manage user quotas Configure quotas, edit and check reports
Manage file permissions and ownership 3 Control file access with permissions and ownership Change the file-creation mask, work with special files
Create and change hard and symbolic links 2 Manage links to a file Use links to support system administration
Find system files and place files in the correct location 2 Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) Correct location of files and the purpose of important

To adequately address these topics, focus on the following files, terms, and utilities: /etc/fstab, /etc/updated.conf, /media, chgrp, chmod, chown, debugfs, df, du, dump32fs, e2fsck, edquota, ext2/ext3/ext4, find, fsck, ln, locate, mke2fs, mkfs, mkswap, mount, quota, quotaon, reiserfs v3, repquota, tune2fs, type, umask, umount, updated, vfat, whereis, which, xfs, xfs tools

Here are the top ten items to know as you study for this domain:

  1. File and directory permissions can be changed with the chmod command (which accepts numeric and symbolic values).

  2. The owner of a group can be changed with the chown command whereas the chgrp command allows changing he group associated with a file.

  3. The du command can show how much of a disk is used.

  4. The df command shows how much of a disk is free.

  5. The main tool for troubleshooting disk issues is fsck which can check file-system structure, including inodes.

  6. To mount file-systems, use the mount command and to unmount them use umount. To have mounting occur automatically at startup, add the entries to /etc/fstab.

  7. Quotas can restrict the amount of space users or groups can use on the disk. Quotas are initialized with the quota command and they are toggled on and off with quotaon and quotaoff. They can be changed with edquota and reports can be generated with repquota.

  8. When files are first created, the default permissions are equal to 666 minus any umask values. The default permissions for directories is equal to 777 minus any umask values.

  9. The mke2fs utility can be used to make the file-system.

  10. Linux supports numerous file-systems including ext2, ext3, ext4, and reiserfs.