A site template is what you use when you create a new SharePoint site. It provides you with a starting setup for SharePoint. A number of site templates are available in SharePoint 2013. Site templates are grouped into categories such as Collaboration, Enterprise, and Publishing.
Note: Which site templates are available to you depends on which SharePoint 2013 edition you're using, as well as the features that are activated. For example, the Business Intelligence Center template is available only with the Enterprise license.
The site templates you should be familiar with include
Team Site: Enables teams to collaborate, share documents, and stay in sync.
Blog: Produces a blog site.
Project Site: Enables teams to manage and collaborate on a specific project.
Community Site: Allows community members to congregate and discuss common interests.
Document Center: Enables managing common documents in a central location.
Records Center: Manages company records.
Business Intelligence Center: Provides all the functionality required for business intelligence in SharePoint.
Enterprise Search Center: Enables search and includes a number of search results pages for specialized queries, such as searching for people, conversations, videos, and general.
Basic Search Center: Provides a general search center site. The basic lacks the multiple results pages of the enterprise class search center.
Visio Process Repository: Stores business processes in Microsoft Office Visio format.
Publishing Site: Creates a blank publishing site. A publishing site is used to publish web pages for mass consumption.
Publishing Site with Workflow: Provides the capabilities of the Publishing Site template and also includes approval workflows.
Enterprise Wiki: Captures and stores information from a group collective.