C All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies
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When programming in C, you use conversion characters — the percent sign and a letter, for the most part — as placeholders for variables you want to display. The following table shows the conversion characters and what they display:

Conversion Character Displays Argument (Variable’s Contents) As
%c Single character
%d Signed decimal integer (int)
%e Signed floating-point value in E notation
%f Signed floating-point value (float)
%g Signed value in %e or %f format, whichever is shorter
%i Signed decimal integer (int)
%o Unsigned octal (base 8) integer (int)
%s String of text
%u Unsigned decimal integer (int)
%x Unsigned hexadecimal (base 16) integer (int)
%% (percent character)

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