Homebrewing For Dummies
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When you’re brewing your own beer at home, get to know the abbreviated versions of homebrewing terms to help read your recipes and directions, keep a basic measurement conversion chart handy, and check out the hierarchy of beers chart so you know what category and type of beer you want to homebrew and possibly enter into competition.

Beer Style Guidelines Hierarchy

The following list has been compiled by the Beer Judge Certification Program and is used by the American Homebrewers Association for competitive purposes.

This hierarchical list presents an overview of all the world’s beer styles (along with styles for cider and mead). Listed are all of the major beer styles and their substyles.

Category Style Sub-Style
1 Standard American Beer
1-A American Light Lager
1-B American Lager
1-C Cream Ale
1-D American Wheat Beer
2 International Lager
2-A International Pale Lager
2-B International Amber Lager
2-C International Dark Lager
3 Czech Lager
3-A Czech Pale Lager
3-B Czech Premium Pale Lager
3-C Czech Amber Lager
3-D Czech Dark Lager
4 Pale Malty European Beer
4-A Munich Helles
4-B Festbier
4-C Helles Bock
5 Pale Bitter European Beer
5-A German Leichtbier
5-B Kolsch
5-C German Helles Export
5-D German Pils
6 Amber Malty European Beer
6-A Marzen
6-B Rauchbier
6-C Dunkel Bock
7 Amber Bitter European Beer
7-A Vienna Lager
7-B Altbier
8 Dark European Lager
8-A Munich Dunkel
8-B Schwarzbier
9 Strong European Beer
9-A Doppelbock
9-B Eisbock
9-C Baltic Porter
10 German Wheat Beer
10-A Weizenbier
10-B Dunkel Weizen
10-C Weizenbock
11 British Beer
11-A Ordinary Bitter
11-B Best Bitter
11-C Strong Bitter
12 Pale Commonwealth Beer
12-A British Golden Ale
12-B Australian Sparkling Ale
12-C English IPA
13 British Brown Beer
13-A Dark Mild
13-B British Brown Ale
13-C English Porter
14 Scottish Ale
14-A Scottish Light
14-B Scottish Heavy
14-C Scottish Export
15 Irish Beer
15-A Irish Red Ale
15-B Irish Stout
15-C Irish Extra Stout
16 Dark British Beer
16-A Sweet Stout
16-B Oatmeal Stout
16-C Tropical Stout
16-D Foreign Extra Stout
17 Strong British Ale
17-A British Strong Ale
17-B Old Ale
17-C Wee Heavy
17-D English Barleywine
18 Pale American Ale
18-A Blonde Ale
18-B American Pale Ale
19 Amber and Brown American Beer
19-A American Amber Ale
19-B California Common
19-C American Brown Ale
20 American Porter and Stout
20-A American Porter
20-B American Stout
20-C Imperial Stout
21 India Pale Ale
21-A American IPA
21-B Specialty IPA
*Belgian IPA
*Black IPA
*Brown IPA
*Red IPA
*Rye IPA
*White IPA
*Brut IPA
21-C Hazy IPA
22 Strong American Ale
22-A Double IPA
22-B American Strong Ale
22-C American Barleywine
22-D Wheatwine
23 European Sour Ale
23-A Berliner Weisse
23-B Flanders Red Ale
23-C Oud Bruin
23-D Lambic
23-E Gueuze
23-F Fruit Lambic
23-G Gose
24 Belgian Ale
24-A Witbier
24-B Belgian Pale Ale
24-C Biere de Garde
25 Strong Belgian Ale
25-A Belgian Blond Ale
25-B Saison
25-C Belgian Golden Strong Ale
26 Monastic Ale
26-A Belgian Single
26-B Belgian Dubbel
26-C Belgian Tripel
26-D Belgian Dark Strong Ale
27 Historical Beer
27 Kellerbier
27 Kentucky Common
27 Lichtenhainer
27 London Brown Ale
27 Piwo Grodziskie
27 Pre-Prohibition Lager
27 Pre-Prohibition Porter
27 Roggenbier
27 Sahti
28 American Wild Ale
28-A Brett Beer
28-B Mixed-fermentation Sour Beer
28-C Wild Specialty Beer
29 Fruit Beer
29-A Fruit Beer
29-B Fruit and Spice Beer
29-C Specialty Fruit Beer
29-D Grape Ale
30 Spiced Beer
30-A Spice, Herb or Vegetable Beer
30-B Autumn Seasonal Beer
30-C Winter Seasonal Beer
30-D Specialty Spiced Beer
31 Alternative Fermentables Beer
31-A Alternative Grain Beer
31-B Alternative Sugar Beer
32 Smoked Beer
32-A Classic Style Smoked Beer
32-B Specialty Smoked Beer
33 Wood Beer
33-A Wood-Aged Beer
33-B Specialty Wood-Aged Beer
34 Specialty Beer
34-A Commercial Specialty Beer
34-B Mixed Style Beer
34-C Experimental Beer
C1 Standard Cider and Perry
C1-A New World Cider
C1-B English Cider
C1-C French Cider
C1-D New World Perry
C1-E Traditional Perry
C2 Specialty Cider and Perry
C2-A New England Cider
C2-B Cider With Other Fruit
C2-C Apple Wine
C2-D Ice Cider
C2-E Cider With Herbs and Spices
C2-F Specialty Cider and Perry
M1 Traditional Mead
M1-A Dry Mead
M1-B Semi-sweet Mead
M1-C Sweet Mead
M2 Fruit Mead
M2-A Cyser
M2-B Pyment
M2-C Berry
M2-D Stone Fruit
M2-E Melomel
M3 Spice Mead
M3-A Fruit and Spice Mead
M3-B Spice, Herb or Vegetable Mead
M4 Specialty Mead
M4-A Braggot
M4-B Historical Mead

Homebrewing Abbreviation Slang

Quite a few technical (and wordy) homebrewing terms exist, so to make it easier to read homebrewing recipes and directions, terms have been abbreviated. Here’s a handy guide for homebrewing abbreviations:


Abbreviation What It Stands For
AAU Alpha acid unit. A measurement of hop bittering potential.
ABV Alcohol by volume. One of two methods of expressing alcohol content in beer. (See ABW.)
BJCP Beer Judge Certification Program. National organization for official homebrew judges.
DDH Double Dry Hopped; a beer that has been dry hopped twice.
DME Dry malt extract. The spray-dried version of liquid malt extract.
DMS Di-methyl sulfide. An off flavor and aroma reminiscent of cooked corn.
ESB Extra special bitter. A medium-high gravity ale of British origin.
FG Final gravity. The measurement of gravity taken at the end of fermentation that allows the brewer to compute the alcohol content of beer. (See OG.)
FWH First wort hopping. The practice of introducing bittering hops to the beer during the sparging/lautering phase of the mashing procedure.
HBU Homebrew bitterness unit. A unit of measurement used by homebrewers to denote the amount of bittering in beer.
HSA Hot side aeration. The unintentional exposure of the still-warm wort to oxygen that can lead to problems in your brew, not the least of which is premature staling.
IBU International bittering unit. An international unit of measurement used by professional brewers to denote the amount of bittering in beer.
IPA / DIPA India pale ale. A highly hopped pale ale. Double IPA, a higher ABV version of IPA.
OG Original gravity. The measurement of gravity taken at the beginning of fermentation that allows the brewer to compute alcohol content of beer. (See FG.)
pH Percent hydrion (also potential hydrogen). A scale used to measure the acidity and alkalinity of a liquid.
RIS Russian Imperial stout. High gravity stout brewed for the Russian Imperial Court.
SRM Standard reference measure. A measurement of beer color.
TSP Tri-sodium phosphate. An effective sudsless, powdered cleanser often used to clean brewery equipment.

Basic Conversions for Homebrewing

In case you need the metric equivalents of basic measurements, keep this simple conversions guide close by when you’re brewing your own beer at home:

Liquid Conversions Mass Conversions
1 teaspoon (tsp.) = 5 milliliters 1 ounce (oz.) = 28 grams
1 tablespoon (Tbsp.) = 15 milliliters 1 pound (lb.) = 0.45 kilogram
1 ounce (oz.) = 29.6 milliliters
1 cup (c.) = 237 milliliters

Ingredients: The Building Blocks of Beer

Here it is, folks: a veritable smorgasbord of ingredient info. This includes various kinds of malts and base, adjunct, and specialty grains, and an overview of the companies that produce them.

Also listed are many different kinds of hops and what you need to know about them before you chuck them into your brewpot.

Finally, you’ll find yeast strains produced by a few of the industry’s heavy hitters, complete with descriptions and attenuation information. Dig in!

Malt: Grainy names and extract excerpts

Here’s a glimpse at the world of cereal grains used in the realm of professional brewing and widely available at the homebrew level. First up is a list of grain producers whose products are commonly used by professional brewers but may also be found at the homebrewing level.

Following that list is a type-specific list of grain. In this second list, I’ve included the various grain types, divided by their usage (base grain, specialty grain, adjunct grain) and other details such as their Lovibond ratings and whether they require mashing.

Finally, you find a semi-comprehensive list of malt extract brands that produce a wide variety of beer kits for the extract homebrewer.

You’ll notice here and elsewhere when shopping for brewing grains that many of the grain names are branded, meaning the malting companies market them by specific names. Also of note: Whenever you see a grain with the prefix cara-, it simply denotes a caramel malt (also known as crystal malt).

Producers of grains

The following list includes many of the top producers of grain for the brewing industry worldwide. These company names are widely known in the commercial brewing arena and are becoming more familiar and sought-after at the homebrewing level.

Briess: This Wisconsin-based maltster is one of the primary suppliers of brewer’s grain to the microbrewing industry, particularly in the Midwestern U.S. In addition to the wide range of malted grains that the company produces, Briess also markets a full line of liquid and dry malt extracts called CBW, or Concentrated Brewer’s Wort.

Crisp Malting: This English malthouse in County Norfolk, England, exports its distinctive Maris Otter brand of 2-row, pale, and crystal malts to North America. Maris Otter is a barley variety renowned by U.K. brewers.

Dingemans: The Dingemans family has produced an extensive range of basic ingredients for the demanding Belgian and European brewer since 1875. The result is an outstanding line of brewer’s and specialty malts used not only in Pilsen type beers but also in Trappist, Abbey, and White beers.

Durst: An authentic German malt producer located in the fatherland of beer, Durst began as a family-owned country brewery and malthouse 170 years ago. It sold its first malt exports in 1924 and has since expanded into an international supplier producing 157,000 U.S. tons of malt each year.

Gambrinus Malting: This small Canadian maltster produces some of the finest 2-row malt in the world. Gambrinus Malting also produces malts not made by other well-known maltsters, such as the almost-forgotten bruhmalt, a pale malt that imbues the beer with a honeyed aroma and flavor.

Great Western Malting: Many consider Great Western Malting’s 2-row pale malt to be the best in the U.S; many of the biggest microbrewers on the West Coast use this base grain.

Hugh Baird: Located in the U.K., the Hugh Baird Malting Company is one of the world’s best suppliers of specialty malts and authentic 2-row British Pale Ale malt.

Paul’s Malt: Paul’s Malt originated in the first half of the 19th century on the east coast of England, where its headquarters still reside today. Today, Paul’s Malt is a modern company and the U.K.’s largest maltster, producing in excess of 500,000 British tons of malt per year.

Rahr Malting: Rahr Malting Co. is a family owned company that has been in business since 1847. It produces and distributes malt and industry-related brewing supplies. Rahr’s malt production plants are located in Shakopee, Minnesota, and Alix, Alberta.

Schreier: This small maltster from Wisconsin is one of the small malting houses distributed by the American conglomerate Cargill.

Simpson’s: Established in 1866 by corn merchant James Parker Simpson, Simpson’s is still the largest totally independently family-owned malting company in the U.K. The company manufactures a wide range of quality malts, including specialty roasted malts, for the brewing, distilling, and food industries.

Weyermann: The 132-year-old malthouse housing Mich. Weyermann & Co. KG Malzfabrik is a protected historic site. But behind the red-brick turn-of-the-century building in Bamberg, Germany, lies the modernized heart of the world’s leading manufacturer of specialty brewing malts. For over a century, Mich. Weyermann has been providing specialty malts to breweries large and small on virtually every continent of the world.

The international conglomerate Con-Agra owns Canada Malting, Great Western Malting, Hugh Baird, and others, making it the world’s largest maltster. Similarly, the American malting conglomerate Cargill imports and distributes Paul’s Malt, Gambrinus, and Schreier.

Types of grains

This section provides you with details about a variety of base, specialty, and adjunct grains available to the homebrewer. Within these tables I’ve also listed Lovibond ratings and the need for mashing procedures -or not. These are by no means exhaustive listings — many more grains are available in the market. These are just meant to give you a “taste” of what’s out there.

Base grains

Base grains denote all the malted grains (barley, wheat, rye, etc.) used to make beer. Brewers must mash all base grains order to create the wort that becomes beer through the magic of fermentation. Beginner and intermediate homebrewers can simply use malt extract to create their wort.

Grain Name/Type Lovibond Rating Needs to be Mashed?
2-row (domestic) 1.8 Yes
2-row lager 1.4 Yes
6-row lager (domestic) 1.8 Yes
Pale ale malt 2 Yes
Mild ale malt 3 Yes
Pilsner malt 1.2 Yes
Dextrin malt 1.5 No
CaraVienne 20 Yes/no
CaraMunich 55 Yes/no
Vienna malt 4 Yes
Light Munich 10 Yes
Dark Munich 20 Yes
Wheat malt 2.5 Yes

Specialty grains

Specialty grains denote all the malted and unmalted grains (barley, wheat, rye, oats, etc.) you can add to the wort to give the finished beer a wide variety of colors and flavors that base grains don’t provide. Both all-grain brewers (those who mash their grains to create their wort) and extract brewers (those who create their wort from malt extract) can use specialty grains effectively.

Grain Name/Type Lovibond Rating Needs to be Mashed?
Wheat (unmalted) 2.5 No
Crystal malts 10–120 No
Special “B” 221 No
Victory malt 25 Yes
Biscuit malt 25 Yes
Melanoidin malt 28 Yes
Special roast 50 Yes
Carafa Type 1 335 No
Chocolate malt 350 No
Black malt 500 No
Roasted barley 500 No
Rye malt 4 Yes
Smoked malt 30 Yes/no

Adjunct grains

The previous sections cover base grains, which are malted and must be mashed to make beer, and specialty grains which can be malted or unmalted and don’t require mashing to add color and flavor to beer. This section provides a list of adjunct grains, which can be malted or unmalted and can be used as either a base grain or specialty grain (and two of these “grains” are also available as syrups).

Grain Name/Type Lovibond Rating Needs to be Mashed?
Rice 0 Yes
Corn/maize 0 Yes
Oats 2.2 Yes

Malt extract brands

Following is an alphabetical list of malt-extract brand names and their countries of origin. This list is simply to help beginners become familiar with brand names so that they can make informed choices on appropriate malts for their desired beer styles. In other words, if I intended to brew a Pale Ale, I wouldn’t choose an extract brand produced in Germany. Conversely, if I wanted to brew a lager, I wouldn’t choose a kit made in the U.K.

A few American-made brands have come to dominate the American market, so some of these foreign brands are no longer available in the U.S. (but they can still be found in Europe and Australia).

Brand Name Country of Origin Brand Name Country of Origin
Alexander’s U.S. John Bull U.K.
Black Rock New Zealand Morgan’s Australia
Brewferm Belgium Mountmellick Ireland
Coopers Australia Munton’s U.K.
Edme U.K. Weyermann’s Germany
Geordie Scotland Briess CBW U.S.
Ireks Germany

Top Hops: Hop varieties and descriptions

The world of hops is a fairly big one — one that continues to grow every year. Because of this scope, the discussion of hop varieties can be a fairly confusing subject. This section, which you should use in conjunction with Chapter 5, is designed to help you make decisions about which hops you should use in your brews.

You typically base your primary hop-choosing decision on the alpha-acid content of the hop variety — this characteristic tells you the bittering potential of the hop variety, or how much bitterness a particular variety may add to your beer. You make a secondary decision in regards to the hops’ aromatic potential (which isn’t measured by a numerical score) and its related flavor.

In very general terms, you can say that:

  • American hop varieties are piney and citrusy
  • German and Eastern European hop varieties are spicy
  • British hop varieties are herbal and earthy
  • New Zealand hop varieties are tropical (as in tropical fruit)

Hop varieties from around the world

The table below is an alphabetical list of most of the hop varieties currently in use in the brewing industry. They are listed by their variety name, their country of origin, their alpha acid content (expressed as a percentage) and how they are best used in the brewing process — as a bittering hop, as an aroma hop, or as dual-purpose (they can be used for either bittering or aromatizing).

Hop Name Country Alpha Acid % Usage
Admiral U.K. 13.5–15.5 Bittering
Ahtanum U.S. 5.7–6.3 Aroma
Amarillo U.S. 8.0–11.0 Aroma
Aramis France 7.9–8.3 Aroma
Aurora Slovenia 7.0–8.3 Aroma
Bitter Gold U.S. 12.0–14.5 Dual
Blanc Germany 9.0–12.0 Aroma
Bobek Slovenia 3.5–7.0 Aroma
Bramling Cross U.K. 6.0–7.8 Dual
Bravo U.S. 15.0–18.0 Bittering
Brewers Gold Germany 5.5–8.0 Aroma
Cascade U.S. 5.5–9.0 Aroma
Celeia Slovenia 3.0–6.0 Dual
Centennial U.S. 9.5–11.5 Dual
Challenger U.K. 6.5–8.5 Dual
Chelan U.S. 12.0–14.5 Bittering
Chinook U.S. 12.0–14.0 Dual
Citra U.S. 11.0–15.0 Aroma
Cluster U.S. 5.5–8.5 Dual
Columbus U.S. 13.0–16.0 Bittering
Comet U.S. 8.0–10.5 Bittering
Crystal U.S. 2.0–4.4 Aroma
Dr. Rudi New Zealand 10.0–12.0 Dual
East Kent Goldings U.K. 4.4–6.7 Aroma
Ekuanot U.S. 13.0–15.5 Aroma
Ella Australia 13.3–16.3 Dual
Falconer’s Flight U.S. 9.5–12.0 Aroma
First Gold U.K. 5.6–8.7 Dual
Fuggle U.K. 3.0–5.5 Dual
Galaxy Australia 13.6–16.0 Dual
Galena U.S. 12.0–14.0 Bittering
Glacier U.S. 3.3–9.7 Dual
Gold Slovenia 3.5–6.5 Aroma
Green Bullet New Zealand 13.0–15.0 Bittering
Hallertauer Mittelfruh Germany 3.5–5.5 Aroma
Hallertauer Tradition Germany 5.0–7.0 Aroma
Hallertauer Taurus Germany 12.0–16.0 Bittering
HBC 431 U.S. 14.0–16.0 Dual
HBC 472 U.S. 9.0–11.0 Aroma
HBC 682 U.S. 18.0–21.0 Bittering
Helga Australia 5.4–7.3 Dual
Herald U.K. 11.0–13.0 Dual
Herkules Germany 12.0–17.0 Bittering
Hersbrucker Germany 3.0–5.5 Aroma
Horizon U.S. 10.2–16.5 Dual
Huell Melon Germany 6.9–7.5 Aroma
Kohatu New Zealand 6.0–7.0 Dual
Liberty U.S. 3.0–5.0 Aroma
Loral U.S. 11.3–12.2 Dual
Lublin / Lubelski Poland 3.0–5.0 Aroma
Magnum Germany 12.0–14.0 Bittering
Mandarina Bavaria Germany 7.0–10.0 Aroma
Marynka Czech Republic 9.0–12.0 Dual
Merkur Germany 12.0–14.0 Bittering
Millenium U.S. 15.5–18.5 Bittering
Mosaic U.S. 10.5–14.0 Aroma
Motueka New Zealand 6.5–7.5 Aroma
Mount Hood U.S. 5.0–8.0 Aroma
Mount Rainier U.S. 5.0–7.0 Dual
Nelson Sauvin New Zealand 12.0–14.0 Dual
Newport U.S. 13.5–17.0 Bittering
Northdown U.K. 6.8–9.5 Dual
Northern Brewer U.S. 7.0–10.0 Dual
Nugget Germany 11.5–14.0 Bittering
Opal Australia 13.0–14.0 Dual
Orion Germany 6.0–8.5 Dual
Outeniqua South Africa 12.0–13.5 Dual
Pacifica New Zealand 5.0–6.0 Aroma
Pacific Gem New Zealand 14.0–17.0 Bittering
Pacific Jade New Zealand 12.0–14.0 Dual
Pacific Sunrise New Zealand 12.5–14.5 Bittering
Palisade U.S. 6.5–10.0 Aroma
Perle Germany 5.0–7.5 Dual
Phoenix U.K. 12.0–15.0 Dual
Pilgrim U.K. 10.0–13.0 Dual
Pioneer U.K. 8.0–10.0 Dual
Polaris Germany 18.0–23.0 Dual
Premiant Czech Republic 7.0–10.0 Dual
Pride of Ringwood Australia 9.0–12.0 Dual
Progress U.K. 6.0–7.5 Dual
Rakau New Zealand 10.0–11.0 Dual
Riwaka New Zealand 4.5–6.5 Aroma
Saaz Czech Republic 3.0 -4.5 Aroma
Santiam U.S. 5.0–7.0 Aroma
Saphir Germany 2.0–4.0 Aroma
Select Germany 3.0–6.5 Aroma
Simcoe U.S. 12.0–14.0 Dual
Smaragd Germany 4.0–6.0 Dual
Sorachi Ace U.S. 11.5–14.5 Dual
Southern Brewer South Africa 9.0–10.5 Dual
Southern Cross New Zealand 12.0–14.6 Dual
Southern Promise South Africa 9.5–11.5 Dual
Southern Star South Africa 12.0–15.5 Bittering
Sovereign U.K. 4.5–6.5 Dual
Spalter Germany 3.5–5.5 Aroma
Status U.S. 12.5–14.0 Dual
Sterling U.S. 6.0–9.0 Dual
Sticklebract New Zealand 13.0–14.5 Dual
Strisselspalt France 3.0 -5.0 Aroma
Syrian Golding Slovenia 4.5- 6.0 Aroma
Summer Australia 5.6–6.4 Aroma
Summit U.S. 15.0–17.0 Bittering
Sun U.S. 12.0–16.0 Bittering
Super Alpha New Zealand 12.5–15.0 Dual
Super Pride Australia 14.0–15.0 Dual
Super Styrian (Aurora) Slovenia 7.5–8.8 Dual
Sussex U.K. 4.3–5.8 Aroma
Sylva Australia 5.6–7.3 Aroma
Tahoma U.S. 6.0–7.5 Aroma
Target U.K. 9.5–12.5 Bittering
Tettnanger Germany 3.5–5.5 Aroma
Tomahawk U.S. 15.0 -17.5 Bittering
Tradition Germany 4.0–7.0 Aroma
Triplepearl U.S. 10.3- 11.2 Aroma
Triskel France 8.0–9.0 Aroma
Ultra U.S. 2.0–3.5 Aroma
Vanguard U.S. 4.0–5.0 Aroma
Victoria Australia 14.0–15.0 Bittering
Wai-iti New Zealand 2.5–3.5 Aroma
Waimea New Zealand 16.0–19.0 Dual
Wakatu New Zealand 6.5–8.5 Dual
Warrior U.S. 15.0–17.0 Bittering
Whitbread Golding U.K. 5.4–7.7 Aroma
WGV U.K. 5.4–7.7 Dual
Willamette U.S. 4.0–6.0 Dual
Zeus U.S. 12.0–18.0 Bittering
Zythos U.S. 10.0–12.5 Aroma

Yeast: dry and liquid

This section lists most of the liquid-yeast strains available from three major liquid-yeast suppliers to the homebrewing industry; I’ve identified their products not only by the brand name but also by a beer-style-specific identifying code number. I’ve also included many other well-known freeze-dried-yeast suppliers. Note that these are not exhaustive lists; consult the websites of these suppliers for additional information.

You also find a beer style table designed to help you choose an appropriate liquid-yeast strain to produce any beer style you have in mind. In this table, I identify the recommended yeast strains by their code numbers.

Note that I also include a few mead and cider yeasts in some of these lists for your convenience.

This section shows yeast selections from three major liquid yeast suppliers, but these are by no means all of your options. There are other smaller yeast suppliers out there for you to consider, including Fermentum, Imperial Organic Yeast, RVA Yeast Labs, Giga Yeast, and several others . . .

Some liquid-yeast-culture suppliers list the rate of attenuation of the yeast. This rate refers to the percentage of sugar that you can expect a particular strain to eat during fermentation. (I’ve listed these rates of attenuation wherever the information was available.) What this rate of attenuation means to you as a brewer is that you can choose a yeast strain according to how dry or sweet you like your beers.

This table gives you the most popular dry yeast brands arranged according to ale, lager, and Belgian beer styles:

Dry Ale Yeast Dry Lager Yeast Dry Belgian Yeast
Cooper’s   Brewferm Blanche
Doric   Safbrew T-58
Edme Brewferm Lager  SafAle BE-134 Belgian Saison Dry Yeast
Lallemand Nottingham Lallemand Munich Mangrove Jack Belgian Wit M21
Mangrove Jack’s Saflager S-189
Munton’s Saflager S-23
Safale S-04, US-05
Safbrew S-33
Omega Lutra Kveik

You can use these dry yeasts for fermenting both Cider and Mead:

  • Epernay Cotes des Blanc
  • Lalvin K1-V1116
  • Lalvin 71B-1122
  • Lalvin ICV-D47
  • Red Star Montrachet
  • Red Star Pasteur Champagne
  • Red Star Premier Cuvee

Liquid top-fermenting yeast (ales)

The yeast culture descriptions in the table below were supplied by the yeast producer Wyeast Laboratories, https://wyeastlab.com/ (P.O. Box 146, Odell, OR 97044; 541-354-1335).

Liquid Ale Yeast from Wyeast Labs

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
German ale 1007 73 to 77%
London ale 1028 73 to 77%
American ale 1056 73 to 77%
Irish ale 1084 71 to 75%
British ale 1098 73 to 77%
American II 1272 72 to 76%
Thames Valley 1275 72 to 76%
British II 1335 73 to 76%
London III 1318 71 to 75%
Scottish 1728 69 to 73%
European 1338 67 to 71%
Bavarian Wheat 3056 73 to 77%
Whitbread ale 1099 68 to 72%
Ringwood ale 1187 68 to 72%
Northwest ale 1332 67 to 71%

Liquid bottom-fermenting yeast (lagers)

The yeast culture descriptions in the following table were supplied by the yeast producer Wyeast Laboratories, https://wyeastlab.com/ (P.O. Box 146, Odell, OR 97044; 541-354-1335).

Liquid Lager Yeast from Wyeast Labs

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
Pilsen 2007 71 to 75%
American 2035 73 to 77%
Danish 2042 73 to 77%
California 2112 67 to 71%
Bohemian 2124 73 to 77%
Bavarian 2206 73 to 77%
Danish II 2247 73 to 77%
North American 2272 70 to 76%
Czech Pils 2278 70 to 74%
Munich 2308 73 to 77%
Budvar 2000 71 to 75%
Urquell 2001 72 to 76%

Advanced liquid yeast (ales)

The yeast culture descriptions in the table below were supplied by the yeast producer Wyeast Laboratories, https://wyeastlab.com/ (P.O. Box 146, Odell, OR 97044; 541-354-1335).

The list describes yeast cultures Wyeast considers advanced because the production of these beer styles is generally more difficult or involved than those styles listed previously.

Advanced Liquid Ale Yeast from Wyeast Labs

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
Belgian Abbey 1214 72 to 76%
Belgian Strong ale 1388 73 to 77%
Belgian Abbey II 1762 73 to 77%
Special London 1968 67 to 71%
Kolsch 2565 73 to 77%
Weihenstephan Wheat 3068 73 to 77%
Belgian Lambic Blend 3278 65 to 75%
German Wheat 3333 70 to 76%
Belgian Trappist 3787 75 to 80%
Belgian Wheat 3942 72 to 76%
Belgian Witbier 3944 72 to 76%
Forbidden Fruit 3463 73 to 77%
Belgian Ardennes 3522 73 to 77%
Belgian Saison 3274 76 to 80%

Liquid top-fermenting yeast (ales)

The yeast culture descriptions in the table below were supplied by the yeast producer White Labs, https://www.whitelabs.com/ (5564 Trade St., San Diego, CA 92121; 858-693-3441).

Liquid Ale Yeast from White Labs

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
California ale WLP001 73 to 80%
English ale WLP002 63 to 70%
Irish ale WLP004 69 to 74%
British ale WLP005 67 to 74%
Dry English ale WLP007 70 to 80%
East Coast ale WLP008 70 to 75%
European ale WLP011 65 to 70%
London ale WLP013 67 to 75%
Burton ale WLP023 69 to 75%
Edinburgh Scottish ale WLP028 70 to 75%
German ale / Kolsch WLP029 70 to 78%
Pacific ale WLP041 65 to 70%
California ale V WLP051 70 to 75%
American ale blend WLP060 72 to 80%
Cream ale blend WLP080 75 to 80%
Super High Gravity Ale WLP099 80+%

Specialty/Belgian yeast

The yeast culture descriptions in Table 11 were supplied by the yeast producer White Labs, https://www.whitelabs.com/ (5564 Trade St., San Diego, CA 92121; 858-693-3441).

Specialty Liquid Yeast from White Labs

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
Hefeweizen ale WLP300 72–76%
American Hefeweizen ale WLP320 70–75%
Hefeweizen IV WLP380 73–80%
Belgian Wit WLP400 74–78%
Trappist ale WLP500 75–80%
Abbey ale WLP530 75–80%
Belgian ale WLP550 78–85%
Belgian Saison WLP565 65–75%
Belgian Style Saison Ale Blend WLP568 75–80%
Belgian Golden ale WLP-570 73–78%
Belgian Style Ale Yeast Blend WLP575 74–80%

Bottom-fermenting yeast (lagers)

The yeast culture descriptions in the following table were supplied by the yeast producer White Labs, https://www.whitelabs.com/ (5564 Trade St., San Diego, CA 92121; 858-693-3441).

Liquid Lager Yeast from White Labs

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
Pilsner lager WLP800 72–77%
Czech Budejovice Lager WLP802 75–80%
San Francisco lager WLP810 65–70%
Oktoberfest/Marzen lager WLP820 65–73%
German lager WLP830 74–79%
German Bock lager WLP833 70 -76%
Southern German lager WLP838 68 -76%
American lager WLP840 75–80%
Mexican lager WLP940 70–78%

Liquid top-fermenting yeast (ales)

The yeast culture descriptions in the following table were supplied by the yeast producer Omega Yeast Labs, https://omegayeast.com/ (4720 W Pensacola Ave. Chicago, IL 60641, 773.657.3438)

Liquid Ale Yeast from Omega Yeast

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
Bananza ale OYL-400 73–77%
British ale I OYL-006 70–80%
British ale V OYL-011 71–75%
British ale VIII OYL-016 76–71%
Cosmic Punch ale OYL-402 71–75%
DIPA ale OYL-052 72–80%
Gulo ale OYL-501 85–90%
Hefeweizen ale I OYL-021 73–77%
Irish ale OYL-005 69–75%
Kolsch II OYL-044 72–78%
Scottish ale OYL-015 73–76%
Sundew ale OYL-401 72–85%
Tropical IPA OYL-200 82–90%
West Coast ale OYL-004 73–80%
Belgian ale A OYL-024 72–85%
Belgian ale W OYL-028 74–78%
Belgian Saison II OYL-042 74–79%
French Saison OYL-026 80–90%
Jovaru Lithuanian Farmhouse OYL-033 80–85%
Saisonstein OYL-500 80–90%
Wit OYL-030 72–76%
Espe Kveik OYL-090 75–82%
Hornindal Kveik OYL-091 75–82%
Hothead Kveik OYL-057 75–82%
Lutra Kveik OYL-071 75–82%
Voss Kveik OYL-061 75–82%
Dried Lutra Kveik OYL-071DRY 75–82%

Bottom-fermenting yeast (lagers)

The yeast culture descriptions in the table below were supplied by the yeast producer Omega Yeast Labs, https://omegayeast.com/ (4720 W Pensacola Ave. Chicago, IL 60641, 773.657.3438)

Liquid Lager Yeast from Omega yeast

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
Bayern lager OYL-114 72–76%
German Bock OYL-111 70–76%
German lager I OYL-106 73–77%
Mexican lager OYL-113 70–78%
Oktoberfest OYL-107 73–77%
Pilsner I OYL-101 72–76%

Bretts, bacterias, and blends

The yeast culture descriptions in the table below were supplied by the yeast producer Omega Yeast Labs, https://omegayeast.com/ (4720 W Pensacola Ave. Chicago, IL 60641, 773.657.3438)

Liquid Wild Yeast and Bacteria from Omega Yeast

Name of Yeast Product Code Apparent Attenuation
All the Bretts OYL-218 85+%
Brett Clausenii OYL-201 85+%
Brett Blend #1 Where da Funk? OYL-210 78–88%
Brett Blend #2 Bit o’ Funk OYL-211 85+%
Brett Blend #3 Bring on da Funk OYL-212 85%
C2C American Farmhouse OYL-217 70–85%
Lacto OYL-605 n/a

Suggested strains for specific beer styles

The following tables give you popular beer styles and the Wyeast, White Labs, and Omega Yeast code numbers for the yeasts appropriate to each style.


Beer Style Wyeast Code Numbers White Labs Code Numbers OmegaYeast Code Numbers
English-style Pale Ale/Bitters 1028, 1968, 1099 002, 005, 013 006, 016
American-style Pale Ale 1056, 1028, 1338 001, 008, 041 004, 052, 501,
Brown Ale/Mild 1028, 1338, 1984 002, 005, 007 006, 011, 016
Scottish Ale 1728, 1056, 1084 023, 028 015, 016
Scottish Strong (Scotch) Ale 1728, 1056, 1187 002, 028 005, 015
English Strong Ale 1968, 1028, 1098 002, 005, 028 005, 015
Porter 1084, 1028, 1056 002, 005, 013 005, 016
Dry Stout 1084, 1007, 1028 004, 005, 007 005, 006
Sweet Stout 1968, 1338, 1056 004, 013, 028 006, 016
Imperial Stout 1084, 1056, 1728 004, 013, 099 016, 052
Barley Wine 1728, 1084, 1056 013, 099 016, 052
Altbier 1007, 1338, 1056 029, 080, 820 005, 044
Kölschbier 2565, 1007, 1338 029, 080 017, 044
Belgian Ale (Dubbel, Tripel, Abbey) 1214, 3944, 3522 530, 550, 575 024, 028


Beer Style Wyeast Code Numbers White Labs Code Numbers Omega Yeast Code Numbers
Bohemian-style Pilsener 2000, 2007, 2001 800, 802 101, 107
German-style Pilsener 2007, 2000, 2001 800, 802, 830 101, 106
American-style Pilsener 2035, 2007, 2278 810, 840, 940 106, 113
Münchner-style Helles (Pale Lager) 2308, 2206, 2124 820, 830, 838 111, 114
Dortmunder/European-style Export 2206, 2308, 2035 820, 830, 838 107, 114
Märzen/Oktoberfest/Vienna 2206, 2278, 2308 820, 833, 838 107, 111, 114
Munich Dunkel (Dark Lager) 2206, 2308, 2035 820, 830, 838 111, 114
Bock/Doppelbock 2124, 2278, 2007 820, 833, 838 107, 114
California Common (Steam Beer) 2112, 1332 001, 051, 810 106, 114

Wheat Beers

Beer Style Wyeast Code Numbers White Labs Code Numbers Omega Yeast Code Numbers
American Wheat 1007, 1056 320, 380 052, 401
Bavarian Weizenbier 3068, 3056 300, 380, 550 021, 024
Belgian Witbier 3944, 3463 400, 550 024, 030

Mead and cider yeast

All the following yeast culture descriptions were supplied by the yeast producer.

Wyeast #4766 Cider: Crisp and dry fermenting yeast with big, fruity finish. Creates a nice balance for all types of apples, pears, and other fruits. Allows fruit character to dominate the profile.

Wyeast #4184 Sweet Mead: Leaves 2 to 3 percent residual sugar in most Meads. Rich, fruity profile complements fruit Mead fermentation. Use additional nutrients for Mead making.

White Labs WLP715 Champagne Yeast: Classic yeast, used to produce champagne, Cider, dry Meads, dry wines, or to fully attenuate Barley Wines/strong Ales. Neutral.

White Labs WLP720 Sweet Mead/Wine Yeast: A wine yeast strain that’s less attenuate than WLP715, leaving some residual sweetness. Slightly fruity and will tolerate alcohol concentrations up to 15 percent. A good choice for sweet mead and cider, as well as blush wines, Gewürztraminer, Sauternes, and Riesling.

White Labs WLP775 English Cider Yeast: Classic cider yeast. Ferments dry, but retains fruit flavor. Produces sulfur during fermentation, but this will disappear in first two weeks of aging. Can also be used for wine and high-gravity beers.

White Labs WLP773 Scottish Cider Yeast Blend: This is a blend of two ale strains and one wine strain. Unlike a lot of ale strains that typically dry out most ciders, this unique blend of Saccharomyces strains will leave some residual sweetness for a smooth mouthfeel. This strain is perfect for those looking for a still cider with some lingering apple characteristic or a dryer sparkling cider.

Fermentis SafCider AS-2: This is a good cider yeast for a fresh aromatic profile (apple, citrus) with nice elaborated fruit notes (applesauce) bringing a good overall complexity. For sweet and dry ciders, even under difficult fermentation conditions. Ideal for producing ciders with nice cooked fruit notes and a sweet and round mouthfeel.

Fermentis SafCider AC-4: This is the best cider yeast for an intensely fresh aromatic profile (apple, floral) with a crisp mouthfeel enhancing cider structure. Fast fermenter that maintains acidity. Ideal for producing intensely fresh aromatic ciders (apple, floral) with a crisp mouthfeel.

About This Article

This article is from the book:

About the book author:

Marty Nachel is a beer educator, an award-winning homebrewer, a BJCP Certified Beer Judge, on the panel of professional beer judges at the Great American Beer Festival, and a former beer evaluator at the Beverage Testing Institute. He is also the founder and administrator of the Ale-Conner Beer Certification Program.

Steve Ettlinger is the author of seven books, most of which are about food and food-related subjects. His most recent is Twinkie, Deconstructed.

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