Bookkeeping for Canadians For Dummies Cheat Sheet - dummies

Bookkeeping for Canadians For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Bookkeepers take care of all the financial data for businesses. Accurate and complete financial bookkeeping is crucial to any business’s decision makers: owner, outside investors, creditors, bank and even its employees. Keeping a close eye on your day-to-day business operations can help you be a Canadian small-business success story.

The Nuts and Bolts of Bookkeeping

Every bookkeeping system has a few consistent elements. Here is a list of what your business requires to ensure that it’s bookkeeping by the book:

• Chart of Accounts: Lists all accounts in the books and is the road map of a business’s financial transactions

• Journals: Place in the books where transactions are first entered

• General Ledger: The book that summarizes all a business’s account transactions

Accounting for Debits and Credits in Double-Entry Bookkeeping

In double-entry bookkeeping, you enter all transactions in the books twice: once as a debit and once as a credit. This chart shows you how debits and credits affect your various business bookkeeping accounts.

Account Type Debits Credits
Assets Increase Decrease
Liabilities Decrease Increase
Equity Decrease Increase
Drawings Increase Decrease
Revenue Decrease Increase
Expenses Increase Decrease

Current Ratio: A Valuable Tool for Bookkeepers

Bookkeepers use the current ratio to compare the current assets of a business to its current liabilities. This ratio provides a quick glimpse of your business’s ability to pay its bills. The formula for calculating the current ratio is

Current assets ÷ Current liabilities = Current ratio

The following is an example of a current ratio calculation:

\$5,200 ÷ \$2,200 = 2.36 (current ratio)

Lenders usually look for current ratios of 1.2 to 2, so any bank would consider a current ratio of 2.36 a good sign. A current ratio under 1 is considered a danger sign because that indicates that the business doesn’t have enough current assets to pay its current bills.

• Set up a chart of accounts that best keeps track of all your bookkeeping information.

• Balance and record daily sales and cash receipts daily.

• Watch closely your accounts receivable from customers.

• Pay your bills accurately and on time.

• Set up sales and revenue targets and monitor your progress closely.

• Budget for all your expenses and compare your performance to budget regularly.

• Watch for unusual changes in sales or expenses.

• Monitor your gross profit closely and make any necessary pricing or purchases decisions.

• Take care of slow moving inventory.

• Pay your employee withholding taxes and GST/HST when due.

• Take physical counts of your inventory and compare to your bookkeeping records.