GitHub For Dummies
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Apps on GitHub let you extend GitHub in powerful ways. GitHub apps are web applications that can respond to events on GitHub. These event subscriptions are called web hooks. When an event occurs on GitHub that the app is interested in, GitHub makes an HTTP request to the app with information about the event. The app can then respond to that event in some manner, often resulting in a call back to GitHub via the GitHub API.

Here, you walk through building a simple GitHub App that brings a bit of levity to your issue discussions. There’s an old meme in the form of an animated gif with a little girl who asks the question, “Why don’t we have both?” The typical application of this meme is in response to a question that presents a false dichotomy. In other words, when someone presents a question with two choices, someone might respond with this image.

Introducing GitHub's Probot

GitHub apps are web applications that need to listen to HTTP requests. You have a lot of important details to get just right when building an HTTP request, such as what is the format of the data posted to the app? All these details can be confusing and time consuming to get correct when building a GitHub app from scratch. Knowing where to start is difficult.

GitHub’s Probot framework comes in handy when getting started with a GitHub app. Probot handles much of the boilerplate and nitpicky details of building a GitHub app. It is a framework for building GitHub apps using Node.js. It provides many convenience methods for listening to GitHub events and for calling into the GitHub API.

Probot makes it easy to build a GitHub app, but it doesn’t solve the problem of where to host the app.

Hosting the GitHub app

A GitHub app can take many forms. It could be a Node.js app running in Heroku, an ASP.NET Core app running in Azure, a Django app running in Google Cloud — it doesn’t matter. It just needs to be persistent and available via the public Internet so that GitHub can reach it with event payloads.

Setting all that up can be time consuming, so for our purposes, we use Glitch to implement a quick and dirty GitHub app.

Introducing Glitch

Glitch is a hosting platform for web applications that removes a lot of the friction with getting a web app up and running. Any app you create in Glitch is live on the web from the beginning. You don’t have to think about how you plan to deploy the code because any change you make is auto saved and automatically deployed.

Glitch focuses on the community aspect of building apps. Every file can be edited by multiple people in real-time, in the same way you might edit a document in Google Docs. And every project can be remixed by clicking a button. This encourages a lot of sharing of code and learning from each other, which comes in handy when we build our own GitHub app.

Before you continue, make sure to create an account on Glitch if you don’t have one already.

Create a Probot Glitch app

After you have a rough understanding of Probot and have a Glitch account set up, you can build a Probot app on Glitch. Glitch lets you remix existing apps, and the good news is Glitch already has a Probot app that you can remix. This means you can create your Probot app with one click and a few customizations.

To create your app, type the following URL into your browser:!/remix/probot-hello-world.

This command creates a brand new app in Glitch based on the probot-hello-world example with a randomly generated URL, as shown. As you can see, my app is called candy-chaffeur.

GitHub Glitch Probot app The README page of a Glitch Probot app.

The left pane shows the list of files in your application. The file contains step-by-step instructions to set up the hello-world Probot app. Follow these instructions carefully to set up the sample GitHub app.

One of the instructions mentions running the following command:

cat my-app-name.2018-06-20.private-key.pem | pbcopy

The purpose of the previous command is to copy the contents of your private key file into the clipboard so that you can paste it into the Glitch file. However, this command works only on a Mac. On Windows, you would run the following command (changing the file name to match yours):

type my-app-name.2018-06-20.private-key.pem | clip

When you are done, install the app on a repository that you own and then create a new issue. A few seconds later, you should see a comment created by your bot with the words “Hello World!”.

Customize the app

After you create a Probot app in Glitch and install it on GitHub, you can customize how the app responds to issue comments. When you followed the steps in the README, you subscribed to issue events. These events do not include when new comments are created. We need to also subscribe to issue comments.

See a list of your apps here. Click the Edit button to navigate to your app. Then in the left navigation, click Permissions & events and scroll down to the Subscribe to events section. Check the Issue comment check box, as shown.

GitHub event subscriptions Updating the event subscriptions for the GitHub app.

Click the Save changes button at the bottom to complete these changes.

Now you need to change your Glitch app to listen to new issue comments and respond appropriately. Edit the index.js file and replace the contents of the file with the following code:

module.exports = (app) => {

// Listens to new issue comments

app.on('issue_comment.created', async context => {

// Retrieves the comment text

const message = context.payload.comment.body

if (message.indexOf(' or ') > -1) {

const params = context.issue({

body: '![The why not both girl](<a href=""></a>)'


// Creates a comment with a markdown image

return context.github.issues.createComment(params)




This code listens to new issue comments, looks for the word or surrounded by spaces, and if it finds it, creates a new comment with a markdown image.

This approach is not very smart. Try this slightly better approach. It would be even better if we could employ some artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of natural language processing (NLP). But that's beyond my skillset and out of the scope for this book.

Installing the app

After you create the app and get it working, others can install the app and use it. You can install it by going to your GitHub apps list and clicking the big green Install button in the top right.

Install it on a repository and then go create a comment on an issue in the repository that asks a question with the word or in it. An example interaction is shown here.

GitHub Why Not app The why not both app in action.

About This Article

This article is from the book:

About the book authors:

Sarah Guthals, PhD is a social software engineer, entrepreneur, and former engineering manager at GitHub. She is coauthor of Helping Kids with Coding For Dummies. Phil Haack is a former engineering director at GitHub and senior program manager at Microsoft. He is author of a number of books on ASP.NET.

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