When you understand how an author has structured a passage in the Reading section of the TASC exam, it's much easier to understand the text itself. The structure of a text can provide clues to help you understand its meaning.

Two ways in which text can be organized are compare/contrast and cause/effect.


When an author uses this organizational structure, she provides both similarities and differences between at least two people, places, or things. For example:
There are so many different types of melons, but my favorites are watermelon and cantaloupe. A watermelon is much bigger than a cantaloupe and its flesh is red in color, whereas a cantaloupe's flesh is the color of coral. Both, however, have a delicious, juicy, satisfying taste, best enjoyed on a hot summer day.
The author compares the two melons through the taste and texture of their flesh and contrasts them by discussing their differences in size and color. The power of comparing and contrasting by an author is that it helps you, the reader, make connections between the two items under discussion. It helps you derive an immediate picture of both items without having to spend too much time reading about each one individually.


By using cause and effect in their text, writers provide the reasons for an action or event and also the result of the action or event — or, more simply put, the why and the what of an action or event.

You often find clue words like if, then, because, since, and so in text that's organized using cause and effect.

For example:
Jay woke early on Friday morning because he had a long list of things to do before school. He had decided to make a list the night before. If he hadn't made a list, he would have forgotten everything! He had agreed to walk the next-door neighbor's dog because he thought his neighbor was really cute and might want to ask her for a date. Jay had put that first on his list. He would have to take Bailey for a short walk so he wouldn't be late for school. Next on the list was to pack a lunch because he had a math quiz and wouldn't have time to go out for food. The last thing on Jay's list was to put gas in his car. Then, if he got stuck in traffic, he wouldn't have a problem. He had thought of everything!
Notice that the italicized clues point to the fact that this author organized his text using cause/effect. Can you identify which statements represent cause and which represent effect?

About This Article

This article is from the book:

About the book authors:

Stuart Donnelly, PhD, earned his doctorate in mathematics from Oxford University at the age of 25. Since then, he has established successful tutoring services in both Hong Kong and the United States and is considered by leading educators to be one of the most experienced and qualified private tutors in the country. Nicole Hersey, PhD, is a lecturer at the University of Rhode Island, with a dual appointment to the School of Education and the Department of Mathematics. Ron Olson, MA, is an NBCT-certified teacher in Social Studies who teaches AP Government, Civics, and Contemporary World Problems at Clover Park High School in Lakewood, WA. In addition to his 35 years of teaching experience, he works as an AP US History workshop consultant for The College Board and has been the advisor for National Honor Society at his high school. Shannon Reed, MA, MFA, is a visiting lecturer at the University of Pittsburgh, where she teaches composition, creative writing, and business writing.

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