Bioinformatics For Dummies
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DNA is made up of long chains of nucleotides. To make a complete DNA molecule, single nucleotides join to make chains that come together as matched pairs and form long double strands. Each nucleotide is comprised of the following:

  • A five-sided (pentose) sugar called deoxyribose

  • A phosphate

  • One of four nitrogen-rich bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine

Nucleotides are joined together by phosphodiester bonds. Nucleotide chains are antiparallel and complementary.


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Jean-Michel Claverie is professor of medical bioinformatics at the School of Medicine of the Université de la Méditerranée, and a consultant in genomics and bioinformatics. He is the founder and current head of the Structural and the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Claverie is the author or coauthor of more than 150 scientific publications, and a member of numerous international review panels and scientific councils. Cedric Notredame is a researcher at the French National Centre for Scientific Research. He dedicates most of his research to the multiple sequence alignment problem and its many applications in biology.

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