Business Statistics For Dummies
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Symbols (or notation) found in statistics problems fall into three main categories: math symbols, symbols referring to a population, and symbols referring to a sample.

  • Math symbols are easy enough to decipher with a simple review of algebra. They involve items such as square root signs, equations of a line, and combinations of math operations.

  • Population symbols are almost always lowercase Greek letters. They refer to the unknown population values that you're trying to estimate.

  • Sample symbols are almost always lowercase English letters with accents. They refer to the known statistics that are calculated from data.


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Alan Anderson, PhD, is a professor of economics and finance at Fordham University and New York University. He's a veteran economist, risk manager, and fixed income analyst.

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