Networking and Virtual Disk Storage
Computers aren’t the only things that are virtualized in a virtual environment. In addition to creating virtual computers, virtualization also creates virtual disk storage. Disk virtualization lets you combine a variety of physical disk storage devices to create pools of disk storage that you can then parcel out to your virtual machines as needed.
Virtualization of disk storage is nothing new. In fact, there are actually several layers of virtualization involved in an actual storage environment. At the lowest level are the actual physical disk drives. Physical disk drives are usually bundled together in arrays of individual drives. This bundling is a type of virtualization in that it creates the image of a single large disk drive that isn’t really there. For example, four 2TB disk drives might be combined in an array to create a single 8TB disk drive.
Note that disk arrays are usually used to provide data protection through redundancy. This is commonly called RAID, which stands for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks.
One common form of RAID, called RAID-10, lets you create mirrored pairs of disk drives so that data is always written to both of the drives in a mirror pair. So, if one of the drives in a mirror pair fails, the other drive can carry the load. With RAID-10, the usable capacity of the complete array is equal to one-half of the total capacity of the drives in the array. For example, a RAID-10 array consisting of four 2TB drives contains two pairs of mirrored 2TB disk drives, for a total usable capacity of 4TB.
Another common form of RAID is RAID-5, in which disk drives are combined and one of the drives in the group is used for redundancy. Then, if any one of the drives in the array fails, the remaining drives can be used to re-create the data that was on the drive that failed. The total capacity of a RAID-5 array is equal to the sum of the capacities of the individual drives, minus one of the drives. For example, an array of four 2TB drives in a RAID-5 configuration has a total usable capacity of 6TB.
In a typical virtual environment, the host computers can be connected to disk storage in several distinct ways:
Local disk storage: In local disk storage, disk drives are mounted directly into the host computer and are connected to the host computer via its internal disk drive controllers. For example, a host computer might include four 1TB disk drives mounted within the same chassis as the computer itself. These four drives might be used to form a RAID-10 array with a usable capacity of 2TB.
The main drawbacks of local disk storage is that it’s limited to the physical capacity of the host computers and is available only to the host computer that it’s installed in.
Storage Area Network (SAN): In a SAN, disk drives are contained in a separate device that is connected to the host via a high-speed controller. The difference between a SAN and local storage is that the SAN is a separate device. Its high-speed connection to the host is often just as fast as the internal connection of local disk storage, but the SAN includes a separate storage controller that is responsible for managing the disk drives.
A typical SAN can hold a dozen or more disk drives and can allow high-speed connections to more than one host. A SAN can often be expanded by adding one or more expansion chassis, which can contain a dozen or more disk drives each. Thus, a single SAN can manage hundreds of terabytes of disk data.
Network Accessible Storage (NAS): This type of storage is similar to a SAN, but instead of connecting to the hosts via a high-speed controller, a NAS connects to the host computers via standard Ethernet connections and TCP/IP. NAS is the least expensive of all forms of disk storage, but it’s also the slowest.
Regardless of the way the storage is attached to the host, the hypervisor consolidates its storage and creates virtual pools of disk storage typically called data stores. For example, a hypervisor that has access to three 2TB RAID5 disk arrays might consolidate them to create a single 6TB data store.
From this data store, you can create volumes, which are essentially virtual disk drives that can be allocated to a particular virtual machine. Then, when an operating system is installed in a virtual machine, the operating system can mount the virtual machine’s volumes to create drives that the operating system can access.
For example, consider a virtual machine that runs Windows Server. If you were to connect to the virtual machine, log in, and use Windows Explorer to look at the disk storage that’s available to the machine, you might see a C: drive with a capacity of 100GB. That C: drive is actually a 100GB volume that is created by the hypervisor and attached to the virtual machine. The 100GB volume, in turn, is allocated from a data store, which might be 4TB in size. The data store is created from disk storage contained in a SAN attached to the host, which might be made up of a RAID-10 array consisting of four 2TB physical disk drives.
So, you can see that there are at least four layers of virtualization required to make the raw storage available on the physical disk drives available to the guest operating system:
Physical disk drives are aggregated using RAID-10 to create a unified disk image that has built-in redundancy. RAID-10 is, in effect, the first layer of virtualization. This layer is managed entirely by the SAN.
The storage available on the SAN is abstracted by the hypervisor to create data stores. This is, effectively, a second level of virtualization.
Portions of a data store are used to create volumes that are then presented to virtual machines. Volumes represent a third layer of virtualization.
The guest operating system sees the volumes as if they’re physical devices, which can be mounted and then formatted to create usable disk storage accessible to the user. This is the fourth layer of virtualization.
Although it may seem overly complicated, these layers of virtualization give you a lot of flexibility when it comes to storage management. New disk arrays can be added to a SAN, or a new NAS can be added to the network, and then new data stores can be created from them without disrupting existing data stores. Volumes can be moved from one data store to another without disrupting the virtual machines they’re attached to. In fact, you can increase the size of a volume on the fly, and the virtual machine will immediately see the increased storage capacity of its disk drives, without even requiring so much as a reboot.