What Is Investment Liquidity?
The term liquidity refers to how long and at what cost it takes to convert an investment into cash. The money in your wallet is considered perfectly liquid — it’s already cash.
Suppose that you invested money in a handful of stocks. Although you can’t easily sell these stocks on a Saturday night, you can sell most stocks quickly through a broker for a nominal fee any day that the financial markets are open (normal working days). You pay a higher percentage to sell your stocks if you use a high-cost broker or if you have a small amount of stock to sell.
Real estate is generally much less liquid than stock. Preparing your property for sale takes time, and if you want to get fair market value for your property, finding a buyer may take weeks or months. Selling costs (agent commissions, fix-up expenses, and closing costs) can approach 8 to 10 percent of the home’s value.
A privately run small business is among the least liquid of the better growth investments that you can make. Selling such a business typically takes longer than selling most real estate.
So that you’re not forced to sell one of your investments that you intend to hold for long-term purposes, keep an emergency reserve of three to six months’ worth of living expenses in a money market account. Also consider investing some money in highly rated bonds, which pay higher than money market yields without the high risk or volatility that comes with the stock market.