Anthropology of Subsistence and Social Organization - dummies

Anthropology of Subsistence and Social Organization

By Cameron M. Smith, Evan T. Davies

Part of Anthropology For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Humanity has practiced all kinds of ways of subsistence, or getting food. This table shows different modes of subsistence and the affects they’ve had on social organization.

Band Tribe Chiefdom State/Civilization
Subsistence: Foraging Foraging/pastoralism Horticulture or (rarely) foraging Agriculture
Mobility: High Medium/cyclic Low Lowest
Food storage: Little: days to months Little: weeks to months Medium: seasons to a few years High: reliance on stored foods
Emphasis on property: Low but present Medium: among pastoralists, herded animals are property of
High: elites own special items High: major differences in material possessions by economic
Attitudes toward social ranking: Low: little stratification and generally equal access to
resources for all members
Medium: among pastoralists, families with more animals have
higher rank
High: hereditary elite class exists, but has more power to
coerce than command
Very high: resources allotted depend on social rank
Population: 10–150 Less than 200 Low hundreds to 1,500 Tens of thousands to millions or billions
Examples: Paiute of North American Great Basin, Inuit of Arctic
Maasai of East Africa (cattle herders), Saami of Arctic
Scandinavia (reindeer herders)
Maori of New Zealand, Vikings of medieval Scandinavia Ancient Egypt and Greece, Shang China, Maya (Mexico and
Guatemala), United States