Logic Pro X For Dummies book cover

Logic Pro X For Dummies

By: Graham English Published: 09-05-2018

Spend less time learning and more time recording

Logic Pro X offers Mac users the tools and power they need to create recordings ready to share with the world. This book provides the know-how for navigating the interface, tweaking the settings, picking the sounds, and all the other tech tasks that get in the way of capturing the perfect take. 

Written by a Logic Pro X trainer who’s used the software to further his own music career, Logic Pro X For Dummies cuts back on the time needed to learn the software and allows for more time making amazing recordings.

  • Record live sound sources or built-in virtual instruments
  • Arrange your tracks to edit, mix, and master
  • Discover tips to speed the process and record on an iPad
  • Make sense of the latest software updates

A favorite among Logic Pro X beginners, this book is updated to reflect the ongoing changes added to enhance Logic Pro X’s recording power.

Articles From Logic Pro X For Dummies

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Logic Pro X For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Cheat Sheet / Updated 02-08-2022

Logic Pro X is software for music producers who compose, record, arrange, edit, and mix music. Logic Pro X is fun and easy to use, and it gives you a powerful set of tools to edit and polish your music to near perfection. To efficiently capture and hone your ideas, here are some quick and easy tips for the various phases of a Logic Pro project.

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Exploring Logic Pro Synths

Article / Updated 12-31-2018

With Logic Pro X, you get a whole bunch of instruments that could easily replace every synth and keyboard you own. They’re powerful and flexible — and they sound amazing. Also, Logic Pro’s synths can seem daunting to program when you look at all the controls and parameters that you can adjust. Here, you get a tour of the instrument interfaces and parameters. Check out a more detailed video demonstration of what these Logic Pro synths can do, where you see how synthesizers work and how to use these Logic Pro synths in your music. To play the Logic Pro synths, you must create a software instrument track and select the instrument from the channel strip instrument slot as follows: Choose Track →   New Software Instrument Track (or press Option-⌘  -S). A new software instrument track is added to the track list. Choose View →   Show Inspector (or press I). The inspector opens to the left of the track list. Click the right side of the instrument slot and choose the instrument you want. The software instrument interface opens. Before you begin the tour of Logic Pro’s fabulous synth collection, it’s important to understand some basic synthesis terms: Oscillator: A synthesizer oscillator produces a continuous signal that forms the basis for your sound. Oscillators are capable of producing several different waveform shapes that have different tonal qualities. Oscillators are the most important part of the synthesizer because they create the sound that the other synth parameters will shape. Modulation: A static synth sound gains interest when it’s varied in some way. Modulation is the process of varying synthesizer parameters. Vibrato is a common example of modulation. Filter: Synth sounds are shaped through the use of filters. Filters remove parts of the frequency spectrum, allowing you to contour the sound. Envelope: A synth envelope shapes the beginning, middle, and end of your sound. The most common envelope adjusts the attack, decay, sustain, and release (ADSR). For example, a piano has a fast attack, fast decay, medium sustain, and fast release. LFO: A low frequency oscillator (LFO) is a signal, usually below the audible frequency spectrum, that modulates a signal. LFOs are used to alter the original signal in some way. A common use of an LFO is to create vibrato. Logic Pro X: The EFM1 FM synth The EFM1 FM synth gets sounds like the 80s classic Yamaha DX7, one of the most popular digital synthesizers of all time. The EFM1 uses FM (frequency modulation) synthesis to get digital sounds such as electric pianos, bells, organs, basses, and other cool and complex sounds. The EFM1 is capable of playing 16 simultaneous voices and, unlike the DX7, is easy to program. To design sounds with FM synthesis, you set the modulator and carrier parameters, and then alter the FM intensity. The tuning ratios between the modulator and carrier set the harmonic overtones. The FM intensity sets the level of the overtones. Here’s a description of the EFM1 parameters: Modulator parameters: The modulator parameters are on the left side of the EFM1 interface. Rotate the Harmonic knob to set the modulator signal’s tuning ratio. Rotate the Fine tune knob to adjust the harmonics. Turn the Wave knob all the way to the left to set the modulator waveform to the traditional FM sine wave or anywhere to the right for additional waveforms. Rotate the large center FM knob to adjust the FM intensity. Carrier parameters: The carrier parameters are on the right side of the EFM1 interface. Rotate the Harmonic knob to set the carrier signal’s tuning ratio. Rotate the Fine tune knob to adjust the harmonics. Click the Fixed Carrier button to avoid having the carrier modulated by the keyboard, pitch bend, or LFO. Global parameters: In the top section of the EFM1, you can set global parameters. Click the Transpose field and Tune field to change the pitch of the EFM1. Click the Voices field to choose how many notes can be played simultaneously. Click the Glide field to set the time it takes to slide from one pitch to another, also known as Click the Unison button to layer voices and make the sound richer, which also reduces by half the number of voices that can be played simultaneously. Modulation parameters: In the center of the EFM1 are Modulation Envelope sliders that set the attack, decay, sustain, and release (ADSR) of the sound. Rotate the Modulator Pitch knob to set how the modulation envelope affects the pitch. Rotate the FM Depth knob to set how the modulation envelope affects the FM intensity. Rotate the LFO knob to set how much the LFO modulates the FM intensity or the pitch. Rotate the Rate knob to set the speed of the LFO. Output parameters: The bottom half of the EFM1 is dedicated to output parameters. Rotate the Sub Osc Level knob to increase the bass response. Rotate the Stereo Detune knob to add a chorus effect to the sound. Rotate the Velocity knob to set the velocity sensitivity in response to your MIDI controller. Rotate the Main Level knob to adjust the overall volume. Adjust the Volume Envelope sliders to set the ADSR of the sound. Click the Randomize button at the bottom right of the EFM1 interface to create random sounds. Adjust the amount of randomization by clicking the Randomize field and setting the percent of randomization. If you like crazy digital sounds, 100 percent randomization is your best friend. You don’t have to be a programming genius to get great sounds from Logic Pro’s synthesizers. Every synth comes with a menu of presets at the top of the interface. Load a sound you like, twist some knobs, and have some fun. Below the preset menu are other useful buttons such as Copy, Paste, Undo, and Redo. The Compare button allows you to compare your edited settings with the saved settings so you can edit as much as you want but always get back to your starting point. Logic Pro X: The ES1 subtractive synth The ES1 synthesizer creates sounds by using subtractive synthesis, in which you start with an oscillator and a suboscillator and then subtract parts of the sound to shape it. The ES1 is modeled after classic analog synths and is great at creating basses, leads, pads, and even percussion sounds. A description of the ES1 parameters follows: Oscillator parameters: The left half of the ES1 interface gives you the oscillator parameters that define your basic sound. Click the buttons on the left to choose the octave. Rotate the Wave knob to set the oscillator waveform. Rotate the Sub knob to set the suboscillator waveform. Adjust the Mix slider to set the mix between the two oscillators. Filter parameters: The center section of the ES1 filters the two oscillator waveforms. Adjust the Cutoff slider to set the cutoff frequency of the low-pass filter. Adjust the Resonance slider to set the quality of the frequencies around the cutoff frequency. Click one of the four Slope buttons to choose how extreme the low-pass filter affects the signal. Adjust the Drive slider to affect the resonance setting and to overdrive the filter. Adjust the Key slider to set how the pitch adjusts the filter. Adjust the ADSR via Velocity slider to set how the filter is affected by note velocity. Amplifier parameters: The right sections of the ES1 adjust the volume level and performance. Adjust the Level via Velocity slider to set how the volume is affected by note velocity. Click the Amplifier Envelope buttons to set how the ADSR envelope affects the volume. Modulation parameters: The largest section of the dark-green area of the ES1 adjusts how the sound is modulated. The Glide parameter sets the speed of the portamento. Rotate the Wave and Rate knobs to set how the Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO) stimulates the sound over time. The Modulation Envelope sets how the modulation fades in or out. The Router parameters set the targets of the LFO and Modulation Envelope. Envelope parameters: The far right section of the dark-green area adjusts the ADSR envelope. Use the sliders to set the time of the attack, decay, sustain, and release (ADSR). Global parameters: The bottom row of parameters controls the ES1 global parameters. Click the Tune field to adjust the overall tuning. Click the Analog field to introduce random changes to the tuning and cutoff frequency, similar to an analog circuit that changes due to heat and age. Click the Bender Range to adjust the amount of pitch bend. Click the Out Level to adjust the overall volume. Click the Voices field to set the number of voices the ES1 can play simultaneously. Click the Chorus field to choose the type of built-in chorus effect that will thicken the sound. The ES1 is a great instrument to use for getting the feel of analog synthesis. Many of the synths that follow have similar parameters. Getting the hang of setting oscillator waveforms, filters, envelopes, and modulators will help you take command of the synths and design your own sounds. Some of these software instruments haven’t had their interfaces updated since Apple introduced hardware Retina displays, which are capable of extremely smooth and crisp graphics. The consequence is fuzzy graphics with controls and text that can be difficult to read. At the top right of the software instrument is a View pop-up menu that can change the size of the window. If you’re having trouble seeing something, make the window bigger. Logic Pro X: The ES2 hybrid synth The ES2 is like a combined EFM1 and ES1 synth plus another type of synthesis called wavetable synthesis. A wavetable is made up of many different waveforms that evolve from one to another or blend at once, creating complex digital sounds. Although the ES2 can produce sounds similar to the EFM1 and ES1, it shines at creating pads, sonic textures, and synthetic sounds that evolve over time. Check out the the unique features of the ES2: Oscillator parameters: The three numbered oscillators on the upper-left side of the ES2 interface choose the basic sound. The triangle-shaped area to the right of the three oscillators blends them together. Filter parameters: The round section in the center of the ES2 adjusts the filters that shape your synth sound. Amplifier parameters: The top-right section contains the ES2 volume level. You can add a sine wave to the output section using the Sine Level knob. Effects parameters: To the right of the ES2 parameters are several built-in effects, including distortion and chorus, as well as a flanger and a phaser. Planar pad: The X/Y pad to the right of the amplifier parameters can control two parameters simultaneously. The planar pad parameters are chosen in the modulation router or vector envelope. Modulation router and vector envelope parameters: The dark-blue strip of the ES2 controls the modulation sources and targets as well as the vector envelope generator. You can toggle between the modulation router and vector envelope using the Router and Vector buttons on the right. Modulation parameters: Below the modulation router and vector envelope parameters are the modulation parameters. Adjust the two LFOs and three envelopes to modulate the ES2 modulation targets. You set the modulation sources and targets in the modulation router. Macro controls and controller assignment parameters: The bottom strip of buttons and knobs are where you set the macro controls and MIDI controller assignments. Click the Macro or MIDI button to toggle between the two types of controls. Click the Macro Only button to hide all ES2 parameters except the preprogrammed macro controls, which are useful when you went to adjust the ES2 sounds globally. The MIDI controller assignments allow you to map controls on your MIDI controller to parameters of the ES2. Global parameters: Found above the filter parameters and to the left of the oscillator parameters are the ES2 global parameters. You can tune the instrument, set the number of voices, adjust the portamento speed, and more. The ES2 hybrid synth can be used in surround mode to pan your sound throughout the surround spectrum if you're monitoring your Logic Pro project in surround sound. Logic Pro designers have seemingly thought of everything. To get to the surround parameters, click the disclosure triangle at the bottom of the ES2 interface to display the advanced parameters. Logic Pro X: The ES E ensemble synth The ES E synth is a lightweight, eight-voice subtractive synth. The E in its name stands for ensemble, and the ES E is great for warm pads such as analog brass and strings. Best of all, it’s much easier to program than the ES1 or ES2. Here’s a description of the ES E parameters: Oscillator parameters: The left side of the ES E interface adjusts the oscillator parameters. Click the buttons on the far left to choose the octave of your sound. Rotate the Wave knob all the way to the left to generate a sawtooth wave, which is bright with strong odd and even harmonics and excels at generating rich pads. The rest of the wave range generates pulse waves, which are hollow sounding with strong odd harmonics and can create excellent reedy sounds such as woodwinds. LFO parameters: The knobs below the wave parameter adjust the LFO settings. The LFO modulates the oscillator waveform. Rotate the Vibrato/PWM (pulse wave modulation) knob to set the modulation intensity. Rotate the Speed knob to set the LFO speed. Filter parameters: To the right of the oscillator and LFO parameters are the low-pass filter parameters. A low-pass filter allows low frequencies to pass through while reducing the higher frequencies. Rotate the Cutoff knob to set the cutoff frequency, and rotate the Resonance knob to raise or lower the frequencies around the cutoff frequency. Rotate the Attack/Release Intensity knob to adjust how the envelope generator affects the filter. Rotate the Velocity Filter knob to adjust how velocity affects the filter. Envelope parameters: To the right of the filter parameters are the envelope parameters. Adjust the Attack and Release sliders to set the level of your sound over time. A low attack setting will result in a more immediate sound, and a higher setting will result in a slow fade up to the final volume. A high release setting will cause the sound to slowly fade when you release the key, and a lower setting will cause the sound to fade quickly. Output parameters: To the right of the envelope parameters are the output parameters. Rotate the Volume knob to adjust the overall ESE volume. Rotate the Velocity Volume knob to adjust the velocity sensitivity. Effects parameters: To the right of the envelope parameters, you can choose a built-in effect. Choose between Chorus I, Chorus II, and Ensemble to thicken your sound. Logic Pro X: The ES M mono synth The ES M is another lightweight subtractive synth. The M stands for mono, which means the ES M can play only one note at a time. Monophonic synths such as the ES M are perfect for bass and lead sounds. Like the ES E, the ES M is simple to program and features a stripped-down set of controls. Both the ES E and ES M are great instruments for learning the basics of synthesis. A description of the ES M parameters follows: Oscillator parameters: The left side of the ES M adjusts the oscillator parameters. Click the numbered buttons on the far left to choose the octave. Rotate the Mix knob all the way to the left to select a sawtooth wave and all the way to the right to select a rectangular wave. Rotate the Mix knob between the two positions to mix the sawtooth and rectangular waves. Rectangular waves, like pulse waves, are reedy and nasal and great for synth bass sounds. Rotate the Glide knob to adjust the speed of the portamento. Filter parameters: To the right of the oscillator parameters are the filter parameters. Rotate the Cutoff knob to adjust the cutoff frequency of the low-pass filter. Rotate the Resonance knob to boost or cut the frequencies around the cutoff frequency. Rotate the Filter Intensity knob to adjust how the envelope generator modulates the cutoff frequency. Rotate the Filter Decay knob to adjust the filter envelope decay time. Rotate the Filter Velocity knob to adjust how velocity affects the filter. Volume parameters: To the lower right of the filter parameters are the output parameters. Rotate the Volume knob to adjust the overall volume. Rotate the Volume Decay knob to adjust how the sound decays over time. Rotate the Volume Velocity knob to adjust how volume responds to velocity. Rotate the Overdrive knob to add distortion to your sound. Click the disclosure triangle at the bottom of the interface to view the extended parameters. You can adjust the pitch bend amount and fine-tuning in this area. Logic Pro X: The ES P poly synth The ES P is another lightweight subtractive synth. The P stands for polyphonic; you can play eight voices at once. The ES P is modeled after classic 80s synths and does a great job of creating analog pads, bass, and brass sounds. Here’s a description of the ES P parameters: Oscillator parameters: The left side of the ES P adjusts the oscillator parameters. Click the numbered buttons to choose the octave. The Oscillator sliders are used to mix the six oscillators. From left to right, you can set the level of a triangle wave, sawtooth wave, rectangle wave, suboscillator -1 (one octave below), suboscillator -2 (two octaves below), and noise generator. LFO parameters: To the right of the oscillator parameters are the LFO parameters. Rotate the Vibrato/Wah knob to adjust the amount of vibrato or wah-wah effect. Rotate the Speed knob to adjust the speed of the vibrato or wah. Filter parameters: To the right of the LFO parameters are the filter parameters. Rotate the Frequency knob to set the cutoff frequency of the low-pass filter. Rotate the Resonance knob to boost or cut the frequencies around the cutoff frequency. Click the 1/3, 2/3, or 3/3 buttons to adjust how the pitch affects the cutoff frequency modulation. Rotate the ADSR Intensity knob to adjust how the envelope generator affects the cutoff frequency modulation. Rotate the Velocity Filter knob to set how velocity affects the filter. Volume parameters: To the lower right of the filter parameters are the volume parameters. Rotate the Volume knob to adjust the overall volume. Rotate the Velocity Volume knob to adjust how the velocity affects the volume. Lower levels mimic classic synthesizers without velocity-sensitive keyboards; higher levels make notes louder if the key is struck harder. Envelope parameters: To the right of the volume parameters are the envelope parameters. Adjust the attack, decay, sustain, and release parameters (ADSR) to adjust the ES P envelope. Effects parameters: To the right of the envelope parameters are the effects parameters. Rotate the Chorus knob to the right to add chorus and thicken your sound. Rotate the Overdrive knob to the right to add distortion. Logic Pro X: The EVOC 20 poly synth vocoder The EVOC 20 poly synth is a vocoder and a 20-voice synthesizer. A vocoder (voice encoder) takes an incoming audio signal, typically a voice, and applies this signal to the synthesizer, creating a hybrid vocal synthesizer. However, a voice isn’t the only thing you can use as an input. You could input a drum loop or an instrument into the synthesizer or run the synth without any input as a stand-alone synthesizer. To use the EVOC 20 PS as a classic vocoder, do the following: On the Side Chain menu in the EVOC 20 PS plug-in header, choose the input source. The source can be a live input, an audio track, or a bus. The classic vocoder effect uses a live input or prerecorded vocal track. Mute the input source so you hear only the output from the EVOC 20 PS. Play your MIDI controller simultaneously with the input source. The EVOC 20 PS synthesizes your input source. Here’s a brief description of a couple important EVOC 20 PS parameters: Side-chain analysis parameters: The upper-left area of the EVOC 20 PS adjusts the side-chain parameters. Rotate the Attack knob to set how fast or slow the synth reacts to the beginning of the input signal. Rotate the Release knob to adjust how fast or slow the synth reacts to the end of the input signal. Click the Freeze button to hold the current input signal indefinitely. U/V detection parameters: The right side of the EVOC 20 PS adjusts the U/V (unvoiced/voiced) detection parameters. The human voice is made up of voiced sounds such as vowels and unvoiced sounds such as plosives, fricatives, and nasals. Rotate the Sensitivity knob to adjust how sensitive the EVOC 20 PS is to voiced and unvoiced input signals. Click the Mode field to choose how unvoiced sounds are synthesized. Rotate the Level knob to adjust the volume of the unvoiced content. You’ll get great results if your input source is a constant volume with lots of high-frequency content. Be sure that your input source’s volume doesn’t vary too much. You can also EQ the input source to boost the high-frequency content.

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Logic Pro Automation: Turning Your Mix into a Performance

Article / Updated 12-31-2018

Every track, channel strip, and plug-in is capable of being automated in Logic Pro X. Automation is best to add after the mix is stable. If you’re still arranging or editing your project, having automation on a track can get in the way of your workflow because you have more things to focus on as you edit. And if your mix isn’t stable, the mixing you do affects the automation as well. For these reasons, it’s a good idea to use project and track notes to jot down any automation ideas you may want to try later. After your mix is stable, take a pass through the project, focusing on each of the core mixing concepts. Automate the levels, panning, EQ changes, effects, and dynamics. If you plan your automation this way, the final result will be an elevated and interesting mix. Choosing your Logic Pro automation mode To automate a track, you need to display the track’s automation in the tracks area. Choose Mix → Show Automation or press A. The track headers will display automation parameters. To enable automation for a Logic Pro track, click the left side of the automation button in the track header. Using the automation button, you can choose between two types of automation: Track: When track-based automation is enabled, you can view and edit automation on the entire track. Region: When region-based automation is enabled, you can view and edit automation on the track’s regions. After you’ve enabled automation on a track, you can choose between the following four automation modes on the menu: Read: Automation is played back but not recorded. Touch: Automation is recorded during playback while the parameter is being touched; when the parameter is released, it returns to the previous value. Touch mode is useful when you’re automating a temporary change in the parameter that you want to return to the previous value. Latch: Automation is recorded during playback while the parameter is being touched; after the parameter is released, automation stops at that last touched value. Latch mode is useful when you’re automating a parameter to a new value that you want to keep. Write: Automation is recorded during playback, and existing automation is erased as the playhead passes over it. Write mode is useful when you want to simultaneously record and erase automation. Trim: Automation values are offset by the amount you move the control. Relative: A secondary automation curve is added to offset the primary automation curve. You can also turn on automation and select the automation mode from the automation mode pop-up menu in the mixer. Adding automation to your Logic Pro tracks After you enable automation, adding it to your track is as simple as clicking a location on a Logic Pro region with the pointer tool. A control point is added with the current parameter’s value. The parameter you automate is chosen in the automation parameter drop-down menu on the track header. You can display multiple lanes of automation by clicking the disclosure triangle to the left of the automation parameters. You can quickly add an automation point at the playhead position for the volume, pan, and sends by choosing Mix → Create Automation → Create 1 Automation Point Each for Volume, Pan, and Sends. If you know that the parameter value you’re automating will return to its original value, you’ll save time by creating an automation point at the beginning and ending of regions. Choose Mix → Create Automation → Create 1 Automation Point at Region Borders. Adjusting Logic Pro automation points The fastest way to adjust automation points is to select them with the pointer tool and drag them up, down, left, or right. You can select multiple points by Shift-clicking them. You can delete selected points by pressing Delete. To create smooth curves between automation points, use the automation curve tool. Drag left, right, up, or down on the automation line with the automation curve tool to create automation curves. You can temporarily switch from the pointer tool to the automation curve tool by holding down Shift-Control while dragging the automation curve. Moving regions with or without automation in Logic Pro X You may end up needing to make an edit to a track or to your song arrangement after you’ve started automating your mix. Moving regions with automation can cause complications if you don’t do it right. That’s why Logic Pro’s default state is to ask you whether you really want to move regions that have automation. You can change this behavior in the automation system preferences. Choose Logic Pro X → Preferences → Automation to open the automation preferences, and then choose the default behavior from the Move Track Automation with Regions menu. You can choose the default behavior also on the Mix → Move Track Automation with Regions menu. Recording live automation in Logic Pro The most precise way to automate your mix is by inputting automation data in the tracks area. But when automation was created on hardware mixing consoles, the automation was performed in real time as the project was playing. Recording live automation is an enjoyable experience because you get to perform along with your track, and perhaps create some magic along the way. Here’s how to record live automation: Choose an automation mode on the tracks you want to automate. You can choose Touch, Latch, or Write. Play your project and adjust the parameters you want to automate. Automation data is added to the tracks. When you’ve finished automating, stop the project and set the track’s automation mode to Read. If you want to speed up the automation process, you can combine it with smart controls. You can use the smart controls to record live automation, and you can also automate the smart controls from the tracks area. Because smart controls can control more than one parameter at a time, you can build some dynamic mixes quickly. Automation is the tool you need to keep your mix dynamic. As song sections change and the intensity of the music changes, automation helps you adjust your mix to keep it balanced and interesting. When your mix automation is complete, you’re ready to master your track. It is sometimes hard to know exactly when your mix is complete, so keep this tip in mind: Think like a pro and set deadlines. There's no such thing as a perfect mix. Do your best, mix a lot, and you’ll continue to improve.

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Logic Pro X Plug-Ins: Compressor, Limiter and Other Dynamic Tools

Article / Updated 12-31-2018

Using Logic Pro X to control the dynamics of your overall mix as well as individual instruments is a crucial fundamental of mixing. Logic Pro’s compressor is your main tool for controlling dynamics as well as for effect. Compressors work well on individual sounds, groups of instruments or sounds, and even the entire mix. There are many types of dynamic control, include limiting, multiband compression, de-essing, gating, envelope shaping, side chaining, and parallel compression. Here, you learn how to use the dynamics tools of Logic Pro to create powerful and interesting mixes. Using Logic Pro’s Compressor plug-in The Logic Pro Compressor plug-in can emulate a wide variety of hardware compressors. Many compressors have become classics in the recording and mixing world, and there’s a giant market for software emulations of these compressors. Logic Pro doesn’t advertise its own compressor emulations, but savvy users know what they are. Like Channel EQ, Compressor has its own meter in the channel strip, right below the EQ display. The meter shows you the amount of gain reduction. You can double-click the meter to open Compressor. If it’s not currently inserted on the channel strip, it’s added to an open slot. Here’s a description of Compressor parameters: Circuit Type: The Circuit Type menu is where you choose a compressor emulation: Platinum Digital: This compressor is Logic Pro’s original compressor. It’s a transparent compressor you can use on any audio source to control dynamics. Studio VCA: The studio VCA is similar to the Focusrite Red compressor. This compressor is colorful, with low distortion, and has a faster attack than FETs. Use it when you want to protect a track from clipping and on instruments with complex harmonics, such as pianos, harpsichords, or 12-string guitars. Studio FET: The studio FET is similar to the UREI 1176 Rev E “Blackface” compressor. FET-style compression is warm with a fast attack time. It’s often used on individual tracks and groups of tracks for both compression and color. Classic VCA: The classic VCA is similar to the dbx 160 compressor. It’s a clean compressor that’s used for low-distortion dynamic control and fast limiting. Vintage VCA: The vintage VCA is similar to the SSL compressor. This compressor has a fast response and a distinct sound, and is useful for protecting tracks from clipping. It’s often used on bass, kick, and snare. The vintage VCA is great for providing “glue” on groups of tracks or the entire mix. Vintage FET: The vintage FET is similar to the UREI 1176 Rev A “Bluestripe” compressor. This compressor can provide a lot of aggressive color to groups of instruments, such as drums, and individual instruments, such as bass and lead vocals. Vintage Opto: The vintage opto is similar to a Teletronix LA-2A. Electro-optical tube compression is smooth and rich, with a warm tone. It’s often used on piano, bass, and vocals as well on instrument groups and the entire mix. Threshold: Rotate the Threshold knob to adjust the level at which compression starts. Ratio: The Ratio knob sets the ratio of gain reduction when the threshold is reached. Make Up: Use the Make Up knob to raise or lower the gain after the signal has been compressed. You can choose to automatically raise the gain to –12 dB or 0 dB on the Auto Gain menu. Knee: The Knee knob adjusts how extreme the compression begins as the signal reaches the threshold. Low values compress harder, and higher values compress softer. Attack: The Attack time knob sets the reaction speed of the compressor. Release: The Release time knob sets the speed it takes for the compressor to release after the signal falls below the threshold. Click the Auto button to let the compressor choose the release time. Limiter Threshold and button: Click the Limiter button to turn on the limiter, which limits the signal from going beyond the level set by the limiter threshold. Limiter controls: You can choose the type of output distortion, which adds color to the compressor in varying degrees. You can adjust the output mix to blend the compressed signal with the original signal for parallel compression. Use the Output Gain knob to control the final signal level. You can also add a side-chain filter. You can set Compressor to react to the dynamics in another track in the project. Choose the Logic Pro track that will trigger Compressor on the Side Chain menu at the top of the plug-in interface. Now Compressor will compress the audio only when the track chosen on the Side Chain menu reaches the threshold. This feature is useful when you want to make room for a track in the mix by automatically lowering any track that’s competing with it. Using Logic Pro’s Limiter plug-in The Limiter plug-in is used when you need to restrict the level from going any higher. Limiters differ from compressors in that they have a strict threshold, whereas compressors only reduce the level above the threshold. You might put a limiter on a single track to guarantee that it doesn’t clip or on a group of tracks to raise the volume as high as possible before it distorts. Limiters can have a big effect on the sound, so a little goes a long way. Limiters are often added as the last insert effect in the chain. But sometimes you can add a limiter before a compressor that’s set to a slow attack time to catch any large peaks and avoid the pumping and breathing effect that can come from too much compression. A description of the Limiter parameters follows: Gain: Rotate the Gain knob to adjust the level of the input. Release: Rotate the Release knob to set the time it takes for the compressor to release after the signal falls below the threshold. Output Level: Rotate the Output Level knob to adjust the overall output level. Lookahead: Rotate the Lookahead knob to adjust how far in advance the limiter will analyze the signal. Higher levels cause latency, so it’s best not to use this setting on instrument or group tracks because it will change the timing. Higher lookahead times work better when Limiter is on the main output. Using other dynamics Logic Pro X tools Logic Pro comes with many dynamics tools that can make your time mixing easier. Dynamics tools can help you solve problems and be creative at the same time. As a beginner, it’s a good idea to use the presets that come with these plug-ins. The preset names are educational, and you’ll often find a preset that describes exactly what you want to do. Following are other dynamics tools you can use: De-esser: Remove hiss from vocal sibilance. This frequency-dependent compressor can lower specific frequency ranges, such as those that cluster around sibilant sounds. Expander: Expand the dynamic range. For example, you can use an expander to reduce the amount of hi-hat leakage in a snare track by expanding the distance between the main snare sound and the background hi-hat. Noise gate: Lower the level of sounds below the threshold. The noise gate enables you to remove unwanted room noise, such as amp hump. Enveloper: Adjust the attack and release of a sound’s transients. An enveloper is a tone-shaping tool that works well with instruments having sharp transients, such as drums, picked and plucked sounds, and pianos. Here, you saw most of the important Logic Pro plug-ins, but there are others you’ll want to explore, such as distortions, filters, multi-effects, and modulation plug-ins. Logic Pro users are encouraged to master the plug-ins you have before you spend money on third-party effects. Logic has everything you need to make a great mix. And as your mix nears completion, you’ll want to learn how to automate your mix so it’s dynamic and exciting.

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MIDI Editors in Logic Pro X

Article / Updated 12-31-2018

The piano roll editor is the default Logic Pro MIDI editor. It has the most features and is designed for speed and complete control. Inspired by player pianos, which use grid-based punch cards to make music, this Logic Pro editor is user friendly and your go-to MIDI editor. To open Logic Pro’s piano roll editor, do one of the following: Double-click a MIDI region. Choose View →   Show Editor or press E with a MIDI region selected. Choose Window →   Open Piano Roll or press ⌘-4 to open the piano roll editor in a new window. The score editor is the choice for notation and traditional music representation. It is great for composition and scoring, and is a requirement for getting your music played by other professional musicians. If you enjoy reading music, you’ll appreciate the score editor. To open the score editor, you can do any of the following: Double-click a MIDI region to open the MIDI editors, and then click the Score tab. Choose View →   Show Editor with a MIDI region selected, and then click the Score tab or press N. Choose Window →   Open Score Editor or press ⌘ -5 to open the score editor in a new window. The step editor works well at building musical patterns, especially drum patterns. It mimics step sequencers, in which you build a sequence of notes by using a grid. Even though it’s grid-based like the piano roll editor, the step editor has a different layout that allows you to quickly edit MIDI event types other than notes, such as velocity or MIDI controller data. To open the step editor, do the following: Double-click a MIDI region to open the MIDI editors, and then click the Step Editor tab. Choose View →   Show Editor with a MIDI region selected, and then click the Step Editor tab. Choose Window →   Open Step Editor to open the step editor in a new window. The event list editor might not be the most attractive MIDI editor, but it’s probably the most complete editor, listing every MIDI event you record. To open the event list editor, you can do one of the following: Choose View →   Show List Editors with a MIDI region selected, and then click the Event tab or press D. Choose Window →   Open Event List to open the event list editor in a new window or press ⌘ -7. The MIDI environment used to be a more fundamental, and often intimidating, part of the Logic Pro workflow. With Logic Pro X, the environment has been pushed into the background, but you wouldn’t be able to sequence without it. The MIDI environment is integral to the input and output of your audio and MIDI. Do one of the following to open the MIDI environment: Choose Window →   Open MIDI Environment to open the MIDI environment in a new window. Press ⌘ -0 to open the MIDI environment window. The MIDI transform window alters your MIDI and can save you from time-consuming and repetitive editing tasks. Whenever you want to automate the transformation of large amounts of MIDI data, use the MIDI transform window. You can open the MIDI transform window in a couple of ways: Choose Window →   Open MIDI Transform to open the MIDI Transform window in a new window. Press ⌘ -9 to open the MIDI transform window. To enable the full MIDI editing features of Logic Pro X, you must have Show Advanced Tools selected in the Advanced Preferences pane. Choose Logic Pro X →   Preferences →   Advanced Tools, and then select Show Advanced Tools and the other additional options.

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EXS24 Sampler in Logic Pro X

Article / Updated 12-31-2018

The Logic Pro EXS24 sampler plays audio files known as samples. Samplers are useful for re-creating acoustic instruments because you’re playing back recorded audio files. But you can also sample synthetic sounds or mangle acoustic samples until they’re no longer recognizable to create unique sounds with Logic Pro X. Here, you learn how to use the EXS24, import third-party sample libraries, and create your own sampler instruments. Logic Pro X: Importing sample libraries The EXS24 comes with an enormous library of sampler instruments, but you can also import third-party sample libraries. The EXS24 has a large user base, so finding sample providers online isn’t difficult. In addition to the native EXS24 sampler instrument format, you can import SoundFont2, DLS, and Gigasampler files. To import a third-party sample library, follow these steps: Copy the sample files to a subfolder of your choosing in any of the following locations: Macintosh HD/Users//Music/Audio Music Apps/Sampler Instruments/ Macintosh HD/Users//Library/Application Support/Logic/Sampler Instruments/ Macintosh HD/Library/Application Support/Logic/Sampler Instruments/ At the top of the EXS24 interface, click the Sampler Instruments menu and choose Refresh Menu. Your imported sampler instrument appears on the menu, so that you can select and open it. Converting Logic Pro regions to sampler instruments You can create your own sampler instrument from any audio region in your project. For example, you can take a drum loop or an instrument riff and slice it into several pieces that you can play with your MIDI controller. You can also trigger the entire region as a loop or a one-shot sample, which means the region plays just once instead of repeating. To convert audio regions to sampler instruments, do the following: Select an audio region in your project. Control-click the region and choose Convert →   Convert to New Sampler Track (or press Control-E). The Convert Regions to New Sampler Track dialog opens. Select Create Zones from Regions or Create Zones from Transient Markers. Select Regions to create a loop or one-shot sample. Select Transient Markers to slice the region into several different samples that you can trigger with your MIDI controller. Name the instrument and select the note trigger range. The note trigger range defines the MIDI notes that will trigger the samples. Click OK. A new software instrument track is added to the track list loaded with the EXS24. A MIDI region containing the trigger notes is also added to the tracks area. If you convert a drumbeat to a sampler instrument, you can play the beat chromatically with your MIDI controller. A cool trick is to rearrange parts of the beat to create new beats or drum fills. If you converted an instrument part to a sampler instrument, you can rearrange the part and come up with new instrument parts. You could also sample your boss saying, “No one leave until the work is done” and rearrange it to say, “The work is done. Leave.” Controlling sample parameters in Logic Pro X Just like the other Logic Pro synthesizers, EXS24 sounds can be shaped by filters and modulation. Here’s a brief description of some EXS24 parameters: Global parameters: The top-left green section and top row of parameters are where you set the EXS24 global parameters. Click the Legato, Mono, or Poly button to change the keyboard mode. Double-click the Voices field to set the maximum number of notes that the EXS24 can play at a time. Click the Unison button to play many slightly detuned voices at once to emulate a thick and classic synth sound. Double-click the Velocity Offset field to increase or decrease the incoming velocity signals from your MIDI controller. Click the Hold Via field to change the default MIDI controller used to trigger the sustain pedal. Pitch parameters: To the right of the global parameters are the EXS24 Pitch parameters. In this section, you can transpose and fine-tune the instrument. You can adjust the amount of pitch bend and introduce random pitch changes to emulate analog synthesizers or live string players. Adjust the Glide slider to set the speed of the portamento effect. Filter parameters: Below the sampler instrument menu are the EXS24 filter parameters. Click the buttons at the bottom of the filter section to choose the type of filter. Rotate the Cutoff and Resonance knobs to set the filter parameters. Output parameters: To the right of the filter parameters are the EXS24 output parameters. Rotate the Volume knob to set the overall volume. Adjust the Level Via Velocity slider to set how velocity affects the volume. Double-click the Key Scale field to set how volume is affected by pitch. Positive values increase the level of higher notes, emulating acoustic instruments. Modulation router: The center dark-blue strip of controls is where you set the EXS24 modulation sources and targets. LFO parameters: The bottom-left section of the EXS24 is where you set the parameters of the three LFOs. Envelope parameters: To the right of the LFO parameters are the envelope parameters. Envelope 1 controls the filter while Envelope 2 controls the volume level. EXS24 preferences: Click the Options button on the upper-right corner of the EXS24 to open the Options menu. Choose Preferences on the Options menu to open the Sampler Preferences window. In this window, you can choose to search samples on your local hard drive, external hard drives, or all hard drives connected to your computer. Editing sampled instruments in Logic Pro X There may come a time when you want to create your own sampler instruments or edit the current instrument. A sampler instrument is made up of zones and groups. A zone is the location of a single sample, whereas a group can contain many zones. You can edit all the zones in the group simultaneously. To visualize how zones and groups fit together, consider a piano sampler instrument. Each piano key is sampled at multiple velocity levels. These sampled notes (zones) are grouped according to their velocity level for organization and so the group can be edited as a whole. You can have a group that contains loud samples and a group that contains quiet samples, for example, and edit each group and all the zones in it. To open the instrument editor, click the Edit button at the top right of the EXS24 interface. The instrument editor has two views, zones and groups, which can be accessed by clicking the buttons at the top left of the Instrument Editor window. On the Instrument drop-down menu at the top of the interface, you can save, rename, and create new instruments. You can also create zones and groups, as well as show and hide parameters on the View menu. Double-clicking the audio file names will open the samples in the Logic Pro audio file editor.

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Logic Pro X Synth: Fusing Four Synths with Retro Synth

Article / Updated 12-31-2018

Logic Pro X has everything you could need for your synthesizer needs. Retro Synth is four synths in one. It’s a sixteen-voice synthesizer that can easily switch between four of the most popular types of synthesis. From deep bass to screaming leads, Retro Synth has you covered. The best part is how easy Logic Pro makes it to dive in and get good sounds quickly. The second best part is that all these synths don’t collect dust in a wing of your rock star mansion. Choosing your flavor of synthesis: Analog, sync, wavetable, and FM The upper-left section of Logic Pro’s Retro Synth interface allows you to choose between the following synth engines: Analog: Analog synthesis is found in classic synthesizers. It’s great for leads, basses, and pads. Sync: Sync is a more aggressive type of synthesis. It’s less suitable for pads and just right for leads and basses. Wavetable: Wavetable synthesis is used for real instrument sounds in addition to synthesized sounds. It’s perfect for synth/acoustic hybrids. FM: Frequency modulation (FM) synthesis creates classic digital sounds. It’s excellent for bells, electric pianos, and bass sounds. Controlling your Logic Pro synth parameters After choosing a synthesis type in Logic Pro, you can further shape your sound in the Oscillator and Filter sections: Oscillator: The Retro Synth oscillators generate the waveforms that form your basic synth sound. The controls in the Oscillator section change depending on which type of synthesis you have selected. Synths are fun when you simply play with the knobs and sliders and see what happens. The Oscillator section is where you do your main tone shaping. Filter: The Filter section shapes the sound coming from your oscillators. Choose the type of filter in the pop-up title bar at the top of the section. You can choose from low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band reject, or peak filters. Each filter allows certain frequencies to pass through and can be further modified with the other filter controls. Amp: The Amp section sets the global synth volume. You can also mix in a sine wave with your synth sound to make it bigger. Glide/Autobend: Choose either Glide or Autobend in the pop-up title bar at the top of the section. Glide controls how the pitch of a note bends into the pitch of the following note. Autobend controls how a note bends when you first play it. Global: Click the Settings button on the bottom right of the Retro Synth interface to get to the global settings. Here you can adjust pitch settings, adjust the stereo spread, and choose how many voices can be played at one time. You can also adjust how your MIDI controller interacts with the Retro Synth. Modifying synth effects in Logic Pro X On the top right of the Retro Synth interface is a simple Effects section where you can choose between a chorus and flanger: Chorus: Chorus gives you a thick and rich sound by the use of multiple delays. You can adjust the mix of the chorus as well as the chorus rate. Flanger: Flanging combines the original signal with itself, creating washy phase cancellations throughout the frequency spectrum. Like with the chorus, you can adjust the mix and rate. Modulating the Logic Pro synth Modulation alters your sound to make it interesting and exciting. You can use modulation to create vibrato, modify the filters, affect the volume, and lots of other less than realistic effects. You can modulate your oscillator waveforms in Logic Pro X with the following parameters: LFO: Your low frequency oscillator (LFO) is a waveform that will modulate your sound. Choose different waveforms and rates to create unique modulations. You can control the LFO from your MIDI controller’s modulation wheel or with aftertouch (pressure applied to a key on a keyboard while the key is being held down) on the source pop-up menu on the bottom right of the LFO section or both. Vibrato: Add vibrato to your synth sound by using the same controls as the LFO. Filter envelope: The filter envelope adjusts the attack, decay, sustain, and release (ADSR) of your filter. Drag the envelope handles in the display to adjust your filter envelope. Amp envelope: Similar to the filter envelope, the amp envelope adjusts the ADSR of the overall Retro Synth volume. Faster attack times create instantaneous sounds while slower attack times make the sound appear gradually. Controller: Click the Settings button on the bottom right of the Retro Synth interface to adjust global parameters such as tuning and the number of voices. The right side of the Settings section includes parameters for your MIDI controller modulation wheel, aftertouch, and velocity. One of the best ways to learn how to program a synthesizer is to open a preset that you like and see how the sound is created. Compare two different sounds to see which parameters are affecting the sound. And don’t be afraid to fiddle with the knobs. It might look vintage, but it won’t break!

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Logic Pro X: Designing Electronic Drums Kits with Drum Machine Designer

Article / Updated 12-31-2018

Drum Machine Designer is a software instrument interface for building electronic drum kits and customizing drum sounds in Logic Pro X. Drum Machine Designer loads automatically with many of drummer’s library presets. Logic Pro’s Drum Machine Designer includes the following components: Drum Machine Designer interface: Contains a drum grid for choosing drums and smart controls for shaping sounds. Ultrabeat software instrument: The default sound engine used by Drum Machine Designer is Ultrabeat, but any software instrument in your library can generate sounds. Track and channel strip group: Adding Drum Machine Designer to your project automatically creates tracks in the tracks area so you can record each drum sound separately. Channel strips are added to the mixer so you can shape the sound of each drum. You can load Drum Machine Designer in the following ways: Create a drummer track (choose Track→   New Drummer Track) and select any drummer character from the Hip-Hop or Electronic menus in the library. Create a software instrument track (press Option-⌘  -S or choose Track →   New Software Instrument Track) and select any patch from the Electronic Drum Kit →   Drum Machine Designer menu in the library. (Press Y to open the library.) Create a software instrument track and select Drum Machine Designer from the instrument slot in the channel strip inspector. (Press I to open the inspector.) Exploring the Drum Machine Designer interface The top half of Logic Pro’s Drum Machine Designer interface contains a drum grid. Each cell contains a drum sound. The lower half of the interface contains smart controls that dynamically update depending on the selected cell. If you click the header at the very top of the plug-in interface, the smart controls area will update to show controls that affect the entire drum kit. Playing drums and kit pieces in Logic Pro X Click any of the cells in the drum grid to play the drum sounds. You can also play the drum sounds with your MIDI controller. Each drum cell has a corresponding MIDI note visible at the bottom-right corner of the cell to help you determine which notes to play on your controller. If Drum Machine Designer is loaded on a drummer track, you can play the drum sounds with the drummer editor. Editing drum sounds in Logic Pro X You can change drum kits and individual drum sounds by selecting patches in the library (Press Y to display the library). Click the plug-in header and select a patch in the library to change the entire drum kit. Click a cell and select a patch to change a single drum sound. Adjust individual drum sounds by clicking a cell and using the smart controls. When you hover your cursor over a drum cell, mute and solo icons are visible. Click the mute icon to silence the drum sound, and click the solo icon to mute all other sounds. You can also drag audio files onto the cells and save them as patches for use in other kits. The drum grid has multiple pages of drum cells. You can reorder your drum cells by dragging them to new locations. Reordering your drum cells won’t change the corresponding MIDI note or change the sound in any way, but it can help you organize your kit and get the sounds you need on the same page. Wow. Drums are a big deal. And Logic Pro X puts a lot of resources into making beats and banging drums. But more importantly, the intuitive interfaces and raw power of Logic Pro X make it easy for you to give your drums the attention they deserve. You can have control over the smallest detail, or you can have Drummer and Ultrabeat play for you.

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How to Add Apple Loops to Your Logic Pro X Project

Article / Updated 12-31-2018

Logic Pro X makes it easy to add apple loops to your project. Apple loops are audio and MIDI files that contain additional metadata, such as the key signature, time signature, and tempo. Logic Pro reads this metadata and adjusts the Apple loop to your project settings. For example, if you take an Apple loop in the key of G at 120 beats per minute and put it into a project in the key of E at 100 beats per minute, the Apple loop will automatically adjust to the project tempo and key. Apple loops are flexible. They do a lot of yoga when you’re not using them. It would be a shame for all that stretching to go to waste, so please use Apple loops. Apple loops can be beats, instrument parts, sound effects, or anything that you want to repeat. You can build an entire Logic Pro project with only Apple loops, or you can use them as accents to live instruments. As limber as they are with time and key signatures, they’re equally able to fit into your project needs. Navigating the Logic Pro X loop browser Logic Pro X gives you a special loop browser to search and find Apple loops. To open the loop browser, choose View → Show Loop Browser or press O. You can also open the loop browser by clicking the loop browser icon in the control bar. If you don’t see the loop browser icon, you can customize the control bar. Here’s a description of the loop browser and its functions: View icons: At the top-left of the loop browser are two view icons that let you switch between button view and column view. The button view, which is the default state, displays clickable keyword buttons to refine your loop search. The column view lets you navigate through loops by category. Loop Packs drop-down menu: At the top of the loop browser is a drop-down menu where you can select different loop collections installed on your computer. To view only loops that you've created, choose the My Loops category. At the bottom of the menu, you can choose Reindex All Loops to rebuild the catalog. You may want to reindex your loops after you’ve added loops to your system. Keyword buttons: While in button view, you can click multiple keyword buttons to filter the search results. The top-left button (the x icon) is the Reset button, which clears all button choices. The top-right button (the heart icon) is the Favorites button, which filters the search results to any loop that has been selected as a favorite. Category columns: While in column view, you can filter search results by navigating through categories of loops. Scale menu: Filter your search by scale type, including Major, Minor, Neither, or Both. Signature menu: You can filter your search by time signature. Search bar: Search for loops by name or keyword with the search bar. Results list: This area displays the loops. It has six columns: loop type, loop name, beats, favorites, tempo, and key. Loop types are divided into blue audio Apple loops and green MIDI Apple loops. Play In pop-up menu: The gear icon at the bottom left of the loop browser is the Play In pop-up menu. You can select the auditioned loop to play in the song key (the key of the current project), the original key (the key of the Apple loop), or a specific key. Speaker icon: You can play or mute the selected Apple loop. Volume slider: Selecting a loop automatically plays it. The volume slider adjusts the loudness of the loop as you audition it. Count: The number of loops that fit your search criteria is displayed at the bottom right of the loop browser. Adding audio loops in Logic Pro X Audio loops are audio files and can be added to audio tracks. In the loop browser, you can spot an audio Apple loop by its blue icon containing a waveform. You can edit audio Apple loops just as you can a recorded audio region. To add an audio Apple loop to your Logic Pro project, do one of the following: Drag an audio Apple loop from the loop browser to an empty area of the tracks area or track list. An audio track will be created and the loop will be added to a region on the track. Drag an audio Apple loop from the loop browser to an existing audio track. The Apple loop will be added to the tracks area at the position where you drop the loop. You can’t drag an Apple loop to a software instrument track or an external MIDI track from the loop browser. Logic Pro is thoughtful enough to warn you if you try. After the loop is in the tracks area, however, you can drag an Apple loop region to a software instrument track or an external MIDI track but it will not play. So if you drag an Apple loop into your project and it’s not playing, make sure it’s on the right type of track. If you stretch an audio Apple Loop too far from its original key or tempo, your loop may end up with a pulled muscle. An audio Apple loop doesn’t always sound good when it's stretched too far, but it still makes a great placeholder until you can replace it. Adding MIDI loops for Logic Pro X MIDI loops can be added to software instrument tracks or external MIDI tracks. You can identify MIDI Apple loops by their green icon in the loop browser. To add MIDI Apple loops to your Logic Pro project, do one of the following: Drag a MIDI loop to an external MIDI track. A MIDI region is created on the track with the Apple loop contents. Drag a MIDI loop to a software instrument track or to an empty area of the tracks area or track list. A software instrument track is created, the corresponding software instrument is added to the track, and the loop is added to a MIDI region on the track. If you drag a MIDI Apple loop to an audio track, the loop will be converted to audio and added to the tracks area at the position where you drop the loop. Adding drummer loops in Logic Pro X Drummer loops can be added to drummer tracks. You can identify drummer loops by their yellow icon in the loop browser. To add drummer loops to your Logic Pro project, do one of the following: Drag a drummer loop from the loop browser to an empty area of the tracks area or track list. A drummer track is created and the loop is added to a region on the track. Drag a drummer loop from the loop browser to an existing drummer track. The drummer loop is added to the tracks area at the position where you dropped the loop. You can also create your own Apple loops from any audio, MIDI, or drummer region in your project. To create your own Apple loops, Control-click any region and choose Export → Add to Loop Library (Shift-Control-O). The Add Region to Apple Loops Library window appears. You can create the following: Loop: A loop will follow the project tempo. Loops are great for regions you want to repeat again and again. One-shot: A one-shot will not follow the tempo and will play until the region completes. One-shots are great for sound effects or sounds that don’t have rhythmic content. You can also choose the scale, genre, and instrument descriptors. Click the Create button and your Apple loop will be added to the loop browser.

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