When dealing with mechanics of materials, choosing the correct formula to calculate the stress at a given point can be difficult. Normal and shear stresses come in a wide variety of applications, each stress application with its own calculation formula. The most common stress types you deal with in basic mechanics of materials fall into several major categories:

**Axial tension:***A*is equal to the gross area of the cross section minus any holes that may exist._{NET}**Thin-walled****pressure vessels:**Two stresses exist: an axial stress along the axis of the member and a hoop (or radial) stress, which occurs tangential to the radius of the cross section. These stresses are based on the gage pressure*p*inside the pressure vessel.For

For spherical pressure vessels, use the following formula:

**Bending stresses:**For symmetric cross sections in the XY plane, use this formula:(moment about the

*x*-axis)(moment about the*y*-axis)**Flexural shear stresses:**Here's the formula for calculating flexural shear stress:**Torsional shear stress:**Use this formula to find torsional shear stress: