Spanish Grammar For Dummies
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Regular Spanish verbs follow regular rules when they become present participles, verbs that end in -ing in English, and past participles, verbs that end in -ed or -en in English. The following tables show the rules for each verb form and offer examples.

Forming Present Participles
Verb Ending Rule Example Verb Present Participle
-ar stem + -ando hablar = to speak hablando = speaking
-er or -ir stem + -iendo comer = to eat comiendo = eating
vivir = to live viviendo = living
Forming Past Participles
Verb Ending Rule Example Verb Present Participle
-ar stem + -ado hablar = to speak hablado = spoken
-er or -ir stem + -ido comer = to eat comido = eaten
vivir = to live vivido = lived

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Cecie Kraynak, MA, is a Spanish teacher, ESL coordinator, and author or editor of numerous Spanish books, including Spanish For Dummies. She has taught and tutored Spanish at the junior high school and college levels for more than 25 years.

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