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Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies (0470226706) cover image

Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies

ISBN: 978-0-470-22670-4
312 pages
December 2007
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Introduction 1

About This Book 1

Conventions Used in This Book 1

Foolish Assumptions 2

How This Book Is Organized 2

Part I: Building Blocks of the Body 2

Part II: Weaving It Together: Bones, Muscles, and Skin 2

Part III: Feed and Fuel: Supply and Transport 3

Part IV: Survival of the Species 3

Part V: Mission Control: All Systems Go 3

Part VI: The Part of Tens 3

Icons Used in This Book 3

Where to Go from Here 4

Part I: Building Blocks of the Body 5

Chapter 1: The Chemistry of Life 7

Building from Scratch: Atoms and Elements 7

Compounding Chemical Reactions 10

Cycling through Life: Metabolism 15

Answers to Questions on Life’s Chemistry21

Chapter 2: The Cell: Life’s Basic Building Block 23

Gaining Admission: The Cell Membrane 23

Aiming for the Nucleus 26

Looking Inside: Organelles and Their Functions 27

Putting Together New Proteins 31

Cycling Along: Grow, Rest, Divide, Die 33

Answers to Questions on the Cell 35

Chapter 3: Divide and Conquer: Cellular Mitosis 37

The Mitotic Process 37

Waiting for action: Interphase 38

Sorting out the parts: Prophase 38

Dividing at the equator: Metaphase 38

Packing up to move out: Anaphase 38

Pinching off: Telophase 39

Splitting up: Cytokinesis 39

What Can Go Wrong 42

Answers to Questions on Mitosis 44

Chapter 4: The Study of Tissues: Histology 47

Getting Under Your Skin 47

Making a Connection: Connective Tissue 50

Flexing It: Muscle Tissue 53

Getting the Signal Across: Nerve Tissue 54

Answers to Questions on Histology 56

Part II: Weaving It Together: Bones, Muscles, and Skin 59

Chapter 5: A Scaffold to Build On: The Skeleton 61

Understanding Dem Bones 61

Boning Up on Classifications, Structures, and Ossification 63

Axial Skeleton: Keeping It All in Line 69

Making a hard head harder 69

Putting your backbones into it 70

Appendicular Skeleton: Reaching Beyond Our Girdles 79

Arthrology: Articulating the Joints 82

Answers to Questions on the Skeleton 87

Chapter 6: Getting in Gear: The Muscles 93

Flexing Your Muscle Knowledge 93

Classifications: Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal 95

Contracting for a Contraction 97

Pulling Together: Muscles as Organs 99

Assuming the Right Tone 100

Leveraging Muscular Power 101

What’s In a Name? Identifying Muscles 104

Answers to Questions on Muscles 109

Chapter 7: It’s Skin Deep: The Integumentary System 113

Dermatology Down Deep 113

Epidermis: Don’t judge this book by its cover 114

Dermis: It’s more than skin deep 115

Touching a Nerve in the Integumentary System 119

Accessorizing with Hair, Nails, and Glands 120

Wigging out about hair 120

Nailing the fingers and toes 121

Sweating the details 121

Getting an earful 122

Answers to Questions on the Skin 125

Part III: Feed and Fuel: Supply and Transport 127

Chapter 8: Oxygenating the Machine: The Respiratory System 129

Breathing In Oxygen, Breathing Out CO2 129

Inhaling the Basics about the Respiratory Tract 132

Knowing about the nose (and sinuses) 132

Dealing with throaty matters 134

Going deep inside the lungs 137

Damaging Air 139

Answers to Questions on the Respiratory System 141

Chapter 9: Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System 143

Digesting the Basics: It’s Alimentary! 143

Nothing to Spit At: Into the Mouth and Past the Teeth 145

Entering the vestibule 146

Moving along the oral cavity 147

The tongue 147

The salivary glands 148

Stomaching the Body’s Fuel 151

Breaking Down the Work of Digestive Enzymes 154

Small intestine 154

Liver 155

Pancreas 156

Large intestine 157

Answers to Questions on the Digestive Tract 159

Chapter 10: Spreading the Love: The Circulatory System 163

Moving to the Beat of a Pump 163

Finding the Key to the Heart’s Chambers 166

The atria 166

The ventricles 167

Conducting the Heart’s Music 170

Riding the Network of Blood Vessels 172

Beating from the Start: Fetal Circulation 174

Answers to Questions on the Circulatory System 178

Chapter 11: Keeping Up Your Defenses: The Lymphatic System 181

Duct, Duct, Lymph 181

Poking at the Nodes 184

Having a Spleen-ded Time with the Lymphatic Organs 187

The spleen 188

T cell central: The thymus gland 188

Opening wide and moving along: The tonsils and Peyer’s patches 189

Answers to Questions on the Lymphatic System 192

Chapter 12: Filtering Out the Junk: The Urinary System 195

Examining the Kidneys, the Body’s Filters 195

Going molecular 196

Focusing on filtering 196

Getting Rid of the Waste 199

Surfing the ureters 199

Ballooning the bladder 199

The male and female urethras 199

Spelling Relief: Urination 201

Answers to Questions on the Urinary System 203

Part IV: Survival of the Species 205

Chapter 13: Why Ask Y?: The Male Reproductive System207

Identifying the Parts of the Male Reproductive System 207

Packaging the Chromosomes for Delivery 211

Answers to Questions on the Male Reproductive System 217

Chapter 14: Carrying Life Forward: The Female Reproductive System 219

Identifying the Female Reproductive Parts and Their Functions 219

Making Eggs: A Mite More Meiosis 224

Making Babies: An Introduction to Embryology 226

Growing from Fetus to Baby 227

Growing, Changing, and Aging 229

Answers to Questions on the Female Reproductive System 231

Part V: Mission Control: All Systems Go 235

Chapter 15: Feeling Jumpy: The Nervous System 237

Building from Basics: Neurons, Nerves, Impulses, Synapses 238

Neurons 238

Nerves 239

Impulses 240

Synapses 241

Minding the Central Nervous System and the Brain 243

Spinal cord 244

Brain 245

Medulla oblongata 245

Pons 245

Midbrain 245

Cerebellum 246

Diencephalon 246

Cerebrum 246

Medulla 247

Ventricles 247

Taking Side Streets: The Peripheral Nervous System 251

Keep Breathing: The Autonomic Nervous System 253

Coming To Your Senses 255

Eyes 256

Ears 256

Answers to Questions on the Nervous System 261

Chapter 16: Raging Hormones: The Endocrine System 265

No Bland Glands 265

Mastering the Ringmasters 267

Supporting Cast of Glandular Characters 270

Topping off the kidneys: The adrenal glands 270

Thriving with the thyroid 271

Pairing up with the parathyroid 271

Pinging the pineal gland 271

Thumping the thymus 271

Pressing the pancreas 272

Dealing with Stress: Homeostasis 274

Answers to Questions on the Endocrine System 277

Part VI: The Part of Tens 281

Chapter 17: Ten Study Tips 283

Chapter 18: Ten (Plus One) Terrific Online Resources 287

Index 291

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