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**Electronics Components: How the 555 Timer Chip Works**

The 555 is a single-chip version of a commonly used circuit called a *multivibrator*, which is useful in a wide variety of electronic circuits. The 555 timer chipis probably the most popular integrated circuit [more…]

**Electronics Components: 555 Timer Chip in Monostable (One-Shot) Mode**

The 555 timer chip in *monostable* mode in an electronic circuit works like an egg timer. When you start it, the timer turns on the output, waits for the time interval to elapse, and then turns the output [more…]

**Electronics Components: Calculate the Time Interval for a Monostable Circuit**

*Monostable mode* lets you use the 555 timer chip as a single-event timer. The time interval for a 555 monostable circuit is a measure of how long the output stays high when it's triggered in an electronic [more…]

**Electronics Components: How to Use an Op Amp as a Voltage Comparator**

A *voltage comparator* is an electronic circuit that compares two input voltages and lets you know which of the two is greater. It’s easy to create a voltage comparator from an op amp, because the polarity [more…]

**Electronics Components: How to Add Voltage to an Op Amp**

An op amp can be used to add or subtract two or more voltages. An electronic circuit that adds voltages is called a *summing amplifier.* A summing amplifier has two inputs and an output whose voltage is [more…]

**Electronics Components: Popular Op Amp Integrated Circuits**

When you get around to building an actual electronic circuit using an op-amp, of course, you’ll need to use a real op amp. Fortunately, op-amp integrated circuits [more…]

### How to Prepare an Op Amp Circuit to Do Complex Mathematics

By adding a capacitor to an operational-amplifier (op amp) circuit, you can use the op amp circuit to do more-complex mathematical operations, like integration and differentiation. Practically speaking [more…]

### How to Perform Complex Processing with Op Amps

If you understand the basic building blocks of op amp circuits, you’re ready to tackle complex processing actions with op amps. Using op amp circuits, you can analyze an instrumentation amplifier, solve [more…]

### Op Amp Circuits and Circuit Analysis

The op amp circuit is a powerful took in modern circuit applications. You can put together basic op amp circuits to build mathematical models that predict complex, real-world behavior. Commercial op amps [more…]

### Analyze Noninverting Op Amp Circuits

Use op amp circuits to build mathematical models that predict real-world behavior.The mathematical uses for signal processing include noninverting and inverting amplification. One of the most important [more…]

### Analyze Inverting Op Amp Circuits

An inverting amplifier takes an input signal and turns it upside down at the op amp output. When the value of the input signal is positive, the output of the inverting amplifier is negative, and vice versa [more…]

### Analyze a Unique Inverting Op Amp: A Summing Amplifier

You can extend an inverting amplifier to more than one input to form a summer, or summing amplifier. An inverting amplifier takes an input signal and turns it upside down at the op amp output. [more…]

### Analyze a Unique Inverting Op Amp: An Op Amp Subtractor

There’s a special op amp circuit —a *differential amplifier*, or subtractor — that is actually a combination of a noninverting amplifier and inverting amplifier. A differential amplifier multiplies the difference [more…]

### Linear Dependent Sources and Circuit Analysis

Dependent sources are used to model transistors and the operational amplifier IC. A *dependent source* is a voltage or current source controlled by either a voltage or a current at the input side of the [more…]

### Analyze Circuits with Dependent Sources

You can analyze circuits with dependent sources using node-voltage analysis, source transformation, and the Thévenin technique, among others. For analyzing circuits that have dependent sources, each technique [more…]

### Describe a JFET Transistor with a Dependent Source

Transistors are amplifiers in which a small signal controls a larger signal. One type of transistor is a junction field-effect transistor (JFET). JFET transistors provide a good picture of how transistor [more…]