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**Electronics Projects: How to Create a Transistor NOT Gate Circuit**

This project shows how to assemble a simple transistor NOT gate on a solderless breadboard. For this electronics project, a normally open pushbutton is used as the input. When the button isn’t pressed, [more…]

**Electronics Projects: How to Create a Transistor NAND Gate Circuit**

This electronics project shows how to assemble a simple transistor NAND gate on a solderless breadboard. Normally open pushbuttons are used for the two inputs. The LED will be on until you press both of [more…]

**Electronics Projects: How to Create a Transistor NOR Gate Circuit**

You can build a two-transistor NOR gate by following the steps outlined in this project. The project uses normally open pushbuttons to control the input circuits. When power is applied to this circuit, [more…]

**Digital Electronics: Integrated Circuit Logic Gates**

Over the 50 years or so that electronics circuit designers have been working on semiconductor-based logic circuits, many designs have been developed for creating logic gates. Because each approach to designing [more…]

**Digital Electronics: 4000-Series Logic Gates**

The 4000-series CMOS logic circuits include several itegrated circuits (ICs) that provide several electronic logic gates in a single package. Each of these 6 chips in the series contains 4 2-input logic [more…]

**Electronics Logic Gates: Universal NAND Gates**

The fact that the NAND (*not-**and*) gate is a universal gate in electronics is incredibly useful because it enables you to build any logic circuit, simple or complex, by using just NAND gates. [more…]

**Electronics Logic Gates: Universal NOR Gates**

NOR (*not-or*) gates are universal logic gates for electronics applications. NOR gates can be combined in various and sundry ways to create NOT, AND, OR, and NAND gates. [more…]

**Electronics Projects: How to Use NAND Gates to Create Other Gates**

Electronic NAND gates (along with NOR gates) are *universal gates,* which means that you can construct any other type of gate by using nothing but NAND gates combined in various ways. The four electronics [more…]

**Electronics: How to Use Software to Practice with Gates**

If you really want to learn how logic gates work, one of the best ways is to download one of the many software logic gate simulators that are available free on the Internet. You can find these programs [more…]

### How to Convert Light into Electricity with Simple Operational Circuits

Here’s your chance to convert light into electricity using simple operational circuits. You can apply a similar approach to develop instruments that measure other physical variables in the environment, [more…]

### How to Detect a Missing Pulse with a Timing Circuit

When timing is off in your computer, specific events don’t occur in the right order. But if you know the physics and *i*-*v* relationships of resistors and capacitors, you can create a circuit that detects [more…]

### How to Design a Band-Stop Filter to Reduce Line Noise

You might need to know how to build band-stop filters to reject line noise. In your stereo or entertainment system, you have unique sounds coming from your favorite music or movies. Special audio effects [more…]

### Ten Common Mistakes in Circuit Analysis

Circuit analysis is a tricky subject, and it’s easy to make certain mistakes, especially when you’re first starting out. You can reduce your odds of making these common mistakes by reviewing the following [more…]

### Electrical Quantities and Units of Measurement

Certain electrical quantities, relationships, and electrical units are critical to know when you’re analyzing and characterizing circuit behavior. The following table can help you keep this information [more…]

### Equivalent Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance

When analyzing circuits, you can simplify networks consisting of only resistors, capacitors, or inductors by replacing them with one equivalent device. The following equations show equivalent series and [more…]

### Analysis Methods for Complex Circuits

When dealing with complicated circuits, such as circuits with many loops and many nodes, you can use a few tricks to simplify the analysis. The following circuit analysis techniques come in handy when [more…]

### Three Essential Laws for Working with Circuits

At the most basic level, analyzing circuits involves calculating the current and voltage for a particular device. That’s where device and connection equations come in. Device equations describe the relationship [more…]

### Circuit Analysis For Dummies Cheat Sheet

When doing circuit analysis, you need to know some essential laws, electrical quantities, relationships, and theorems. Ohm’s law is a key device equation that relates current, voltage, and resistance. [more…]

### How Circuit Analysis Works in the *s*-Domain

Circuit analysis techniques in the *s*-domain are powerful because you can treat a circuit that has voltage and current signals changing with time as though it were a resistor-only circuit. That means you [more…]

### Top Ten Technologies Affecting Circuit Analysis

Circuit analysis involves designing new circuits as emerging technologies become commonplace. And of course, integrating all the components of these new technologies requires circuit analysis. Here are [more…]

### Top Ten Practical Applications of Circuit Analysis and Circuit Design

Although circuit analysis is typically used to analyze what a circuit is doing, you can also use circuit analysis to design a circuit to perform a particular function. Knowing how to analyze circuits allows [more…]

### How to Describe the Frequency Response of Filter Circuits

Filter circuits (such as low-pass filters, high-pass filters, band-pass filters, and band-reject filters) shape the frequency content of signals by allowing only certain frequencies to pass through. You [more…]

### Show Frequency Response of a Circuit with Bode Plots

To study a range of frequencies, you use Bode plots. Bode plots help you visualize how poles and zeros affect the frequency response of a circuit. You can express the frequency response gain [more…]

### Making Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters with RC Circuits

With simple RC circuits, you can build first-order RC low-pass (LPF) and high-pass filters (HPF). These simple circuits can give you a foundational understanding of how filters work so you can build more-complex [more…]

### Create Band-Pass and Band-Reject Filters with RLC Series Circuits

There are many applications for an RLC circuit, including band-pass filters, band-reject filters, and low-/high-pass filters. You can use series and parallel RLC circuits to create band-pass and band-reject [more…]