# Electronics

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### Digital Electronics: Logical Operations

One of the things that makes binary so useful in electronics is that it’s very efficient at handling special operations called logical operations. Logical operations

### Digital Electronics: How to Use Windows Calculator for Binary Conversions

In the course of working digital electronics projects, it’s unlikely that you will have to convert a number between binary and decimal. If you do find that you need to convert binary numbers to decimal

### Digital Electronics Projects: How to Use Switches to Build Gates

To give you an idea of how basic gates work, these electronics projects show you how to assemble an AND gate, an OR gate, and an XOR gate using simple DPDT knife switches. In actual practice, gate circuits

### Electronics Components: Introducing Microcontrollers

A microcontroller is a complete computer on a single electronic chip. They can be purchased for \$50 or less. Like all computer systems, microcomputers consist of several basic subsystems:

### Electronics Components: Introducing the BASIC Stamp

The BASIC Stamp is an electronic microcontroller made by Parallax, a company started by two kids fresh out of high school in 1986. A BASIC Stamp is an essentially complete, self-contained computer system

### Electronics Components: Buying a BASIC Stamp

A BASIC Stamp is an essentially complete, self-contained computer system for use in electronic circuits. Although you can purchase a BASIC Stamp microcontroller by itself, the easiest way to get into BASIC

### Electronics Components: BASIC Stamp Prototyping Boards

There are two kinds of BASIC Stamp prototyping boards that you can consider for your electronics projects — a BASIC Stamp HomeWork board and a BASIC Stamp Board of Education.

### Electronics Components: Connect I/O Pins on a HomeWork Board

Before you start writing programs to run on a BASIC Stamp to add special effects to your electronics projects, you must first build the circuit(s) that will connect to the I/O pins on the Stamp. Once the

### Digital Electronics: How to Install the BASIC Stamp Editor and Connect to the Stamp

To tell the BASIC Stamp what you want it to do in your digital electronics project, you must program it. The BASIC Stamp Windows Editor is the software that you use on your computer to create programs

### Electronics Projects: How to Write a PBASIC Program

You can use a BASIC Stamp microcontroller to create some special effects in your digital electronics projects. But first you have to learn how to write programs to control the controller. If you’ve never

### Electronics Projects: How to Flash an LED with a BASIC Stamp

A BASIC Stamp is serious overkill for an electronic circuit that simply flashes an LED on and off: You can do that for a few bucks with a 555 timer integrated circuit

### Electronics Projects: How to Flash Multiple LEDs with a BASIC Stamp

This electronics project begins by connecting 6 LEDs to the breadboard in a BASIC Stamp HomeWork board and then continues by showing the programming necessary to flash all of the LEDs on and off. You can

### Electronics Projects: A Simple Crystal Radio Circuit

A basic crystal radio receiver circuit consists of just a few basic electronic components: an antenna and a ground connection, a coil, a variable capacitor, a diode, and an earphone.

### Electronics Projects: Materials for a Crystal Radio Circuit

A crystal radio is a good project to hone your electronics skills. You’ll need a handful of parts to build your crystal radio. The following is a recommended list:

### Electronics Projects: How to Build the Coil for a Crystal Radio

When you look at a crystal radio, one of the simplest of all useful electronic circuits, the first thing you’re likely to notice is the large coil. The coil usually consists of 100 turns or more of small-gauge

### Electronics Projects: How to Assemble the Crystal Radio Circuit

Before you embark on assembling the various electronic parts of a crystal radio, you will need a base and a few other parts. Here’s a list of the parts you’ll need to assemble the circuit:

In World War II, electronically-inclined GIs would often build their own crystal radios from whatever materials they could scrounge up. These were called

### Electronics Projects: How to Add an Antenna to a Crystal Radio Circuit

A good, long antenna is an electronic component vital to the successful operation of a crystal radio. In general, the longer the antenna, the better. If possible, try make your antenna at least 50′. Longer

A good ground connection is every bit as important as a good antenna in do-it-yourself radio electronics. The best way to create a good ground connection is to use a metal cold water pipe.

### Electronics Projects: How to Use a Servo in a Circuit

A servo is a special type of motor for use in electronics that is designed to rotate to a particular position and hold that position until told to rotate to a different position. Hobby servos are frequently

### Electronics Projects: How to Create Names in PBASIC Code

When your electronics projects take you into the realm of programmable circuits, you may find yourself writing some PBASIC code. In PBASIC, you can create names to use as program labels. You can also create

### Electronics Projects: How to Create Constants in PBASIC Code

If you begin to use programmable circuits in your electronics projects, you’ll end up writing some code. If your programmable circuit is a BASIC Stamp, you’ll write that code in PBASIC.

### Electronics Projects: How to Assign Names to I/O Pins in PBASIC Code

Programmable circuits in electronics projects require a bit of programming. If your programmable circuit is a BASIC Stamp, you’ll write that code in PBASIC. PBASIC lets you assign a name to an I/O pin.

### Electronics Projects: How to Use Variables in PBASIC Code

The BASIC Stamp 2 microprocessor has a whopping 32 bytes of RAM memory that's available for processing for your electronics project. To use RAM memory in PBASIC, you create variables. A

### Electronics Projects: How to Do Math in PBASIC Code

A little programming is in order for your electronics project when you use programmable microprocessors like the BASIC Stamp. The BASIC Stamp uses Parallax BASIC