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Electronics Components: The 555 in Bistable (Flip-Flop) Mode

A flip-flop is an electronic circuit that alternates between two output states. In a flip-flop, a short pulse on the trigger causes the output to go high and stay high, even after the trigger pulse ends [more…]

Electronics Components: How to Use the 555 Timer Output

The output pin (pin 3) of an electronic 555 timer circuit can be in one of two states: high and low. In the high state, the voltage at the pin is close to the supply voltage. The low state is 0 V. [more…]

Electronics Components: Double Up with the 556 Dual Timer

It turns out that there are many uses for two (or more) 555 timers in a single electronic circuit — useful enough that you can get two 555 timers in a single chip, called the 556 dual-timer chip. The 556 [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Make a One-Shot Timer

In this project, you build an electronic circuit that uses a 555 timer chip in monostable mode. When a trigger switch is pressed, an LED lights and stays lit for approximately five seconds. Then, the LED [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Make an LED Flasher Using a Timer Chip

In this project, you build an electronic circuit that uses a 555 timer chip to alternately flash two LEDs on and off. Then, you modify the circuit so that the circuit is controlled by two pushbuttons that [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Make a Beeper

In this electronics project, you use two 555 timer chips to build an audible beeper, with both timers configured in astable mode. Each time controls a different audible tone on the beeper. [more…]

Electronics Components: What are Operational Amplifiers?

An op amp is a super-sensitive electronic amplifier circuit that’s designed to amplify the difference of two input voltages. Thus, an op amp has two inputs and one output. The output voltage is often tens [more…]

Electronics Components: How the Op Amp Came to Be

The modern operational amplifier dates way back to the early days of electronics history. Specifically, the op amp was first created in the 1930s, when Bell Telephone was just starting to run telephone [more…]

Electronics Components: Open Loop Amplifiers

As its name suggests, one of the most basic electronic uses of an op amp is as an amplifier. If you connect an input source to one of the input terminals and ground the other input terminal, an amplified [more…]

Electronics Components: The Ideal Op Amp

If you read about op amps on the web or in an electronics book, you’ll undoubtedly come across the term ideal op amp.An ideal op amp is a hypothetical op amp with certain characteristics that real op amps [more…]

Electronics Components: Closed Loop Amplifiers

Open loop op-amp circuits aren’t very useful as electronic amplifiers because they’re so easily saturated. To make an op amp useful as an amplifier, you must use it in a [more…]

Electronics Components: Feedback in Closed Loop Amplifiers

If you’re interested in understanding how the feedback circuit works, remember this rule of electronic op amps: If the input voltage is anything other than zero, the op amp will be saturated, and the output [more…]

Electronics Components: How to Use an Op Amp as a Unity Gain Amplifier

A unity gain amplifier is an electronic amplifier circuit that doesn’t amplify. In other words, it has a gain of 1. The output voltage in a unity gain amplifier is the same as the input voltage. [more…]

Electronics Components: Integrated Circuits in Schematic Diagrams

In an electronic schematic diagram, an integrated circuit is usually represented simply as a rectangle with circuit connections placed conveniently around the rectangle without regard for the physical [more…]

Electronics Components: How to Power Integrated Circuits

In most DIP integrated circuits, two of the pins are used to provide electronic power to the circuit. One of these is designated for positive voltage, typically identified with the symbol V [more…]

Electronics Components: Integrated Circuit Data Sheets

Before you work with the electronics of a specific type of integrated circuit (IC), you should download a copy of the data sheet for the IC. An IC datasheet contains loads of useful information. In addition [more…]

Electronics Components: Popular Integrated Circuits

Thousands of different types of integrated circuits (ICs) are available for electronic devices. Most of these were designed for very specific applications. However, many integrated circuits have been designed [more…]

Electronics Components: How the 555 Timer Chip Works

The 555 is a single-chip version of a commonly used circuit called a multivibrator, which is useful in a wide variety of electronic circuits. The 555 timer chipis probably the most popular integrated circuit [more…]

Electronics Components: 555 Timer Chip in Monostable (One-Shot) Mode

The 555 timer chip in monostable mode in an electronic circuit works like an egg timer. When you start it, the timer turns on the output, waits for the time interval to elapse, and then turns the output [more…]

Electronics Components: Calculate the Time Interval for a Monostable Circuit

Monostable mode lets you use the 555 timer chip as a single-event timer. The time interval for a 555 monostable circuit is a measure of how long the output stays high when it's triggered in an electronic [more…]

How a Power Supply Regulates Voltage in Electronic Circuits

The purpose of a power supply is to provide power for an electronic circuit. For a given amount of power, there's an inverse relationship between voltage and current. Whenever current increases, voltage [more…]

The Basics of Radio Electronics

Radio — the electronic technology if not the audio programming — has never been more popular than it is right now. In the 1930s and '40s, there was only one use for radio: broadcast audio signals. Today [more…]

Radio Electronics: Who Really Invented Radio?

The history of electronic radio technology is plagued by controversy over the question of who actually invented the thing. The answer most often given is Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi, but many others [more…]

Radio Electronics: Transmitters and Receivers

There are many natural sources of radio waves. But in the later part of the 19th century, scientists figured out how to electronically generate radio waves using electric currents. Two components are required [more…]

Radio Electronics: Amplitude Modulator (AM)

The original method of electronically encoding sound information on radio waves is called amplitude modulation, or AM. It was developed in the first few decades of the twentieth century. AM is a relatively [more…]


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