# Electronics

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### Electronics Measurement: Ohm's Law

The term Ohm's law refers to one of the fundamental relationships found in electronic circuits: that, for a given resistance, current is directly proportional to voltage. In other words, if you increase

### Electronics Components: Resistors

A resistor is a small component that's designed to provide a specific amount of resistance in an electronic circuit. Because resistance is an essential element of nearly every electronic circuit, you'll

### Electronics Components: How to Interpret Resistor Color Codes

Resistance is an essential element of every electronic circuit, so you will work with a lot of resistors as you explore electronics. You can determine the resistance provided by a resistor by examining

### Electronics Components: Standard Resistor Values

Most resistors used in electronics have four stripes of color. The first three stripes indicate the resistance value, and the fourth stripe indicates the tolerance. Some resistors have five stripes of

### Electronics Components: Resistor Power Ratings

Resistors are like brakes for current flowing through an electronic circuit. Like the brakes in your car, resistors work by applying the electrical equivalent of friction to flowing current. This friction

### Electronics Projects: How to Limit Current with a Resistor

One of the most common uses for resistors is to limit the current flowing through an electronic component. Some components, such as light-emitting diodes, are very sensitive to current. A few milliamps

### Electronics Projects: How to Combine Resistors in Series and Parallel

Resistors can be combined to form complex electronic networks in which some of the resistors are in series and others are in parallel. For example, a network of three, 1 kΩ resistors and one 2 kΩ resistor

### Electronics Projects: How to Divide Voltage with Resistors

Here is an interesting property of resistors that is useful in electronic circuits: if you connect two resistors together in series, you can tap into the voltage at the point between the two resistors

### Electronics Components: How to Vary Resistance with a Potentiometer

Many electronic circuits call for a resistance that can be varied by the user. For example, most audio amplifiers include a volume control that lets the user turn the volume up or down, and you can create

### Electronics Components: Combine Resistors in Series and Parallel

There are two basic ways to combine resistors in an electronic circuit: in series (strung end to end) and in parallel (side by side). The following explains how you calculate the total resistance of a

### Electronics Projects: How to Use LEDs to Detect Polarity

In this project, you build an electronic gadget that uses two LEDs to indicate the polarity of an input voltage. The voltage is provided by a 9 V battery connected to the circuit via a DPDT knife switch

### Electronics Components: What Is a Capacitor?

A capacitor is an electronic component that takes advantage of the ability of electric fields to reach out across an insulator. It consists of two flat plates made from a conducting material such as silver

### Electronics Measurements: Capacitance

Capacitors are among the most useful of all electronic components. And capacitance is the term that refers to the ability of a capacitor to store charge. It's also the measurement used to indicate how

### Electronics Components: How to Read Capacitance Values on a Capacitor

If there's enough room on the capacitor, most manufacturers of electronics components print the capacitance directly on the capacitor along with other information such as the working voltage and perhaps

### Electronics Components: Sizes and Shapes of Capacitors

You'll find one or more capacitors in almost every electronic circuit you build. And capacitors come in all sorts of shapes and sizes, influenced mostly by three things: the type of material used to create

### Electronics Components: Calculate Time Constants

Knowing exactly how much time it takes to charge a capacitor is one of the keys to using capacitors correctly in your electronic circuits, and you can get that information by calculating the RC time constant

### Electronics Components: Capacitors in Parallel and Series

You can combine capacitors in series or parallel networks to create any capacitance value you need in an electronic circuit. For instance, if you combine three 100 μF capacitors in parallel, the total

### Electronics Components: Put Capacitors to Work

If you're wondering what capacitors are actually used for in real-life electronic circuits, the following describes the most common ways that capacitors are used:

### Electronics Projects: Charging and Discharging a Capacitor

One of the most common uses for capacitors in an electronic circuit is to store a charge that you can discharge when it's needed. Project 3-1 presents a simple construction project on a solderless breadboard

### Electronics Projects: Block DC while Passing AC

One of the important features of capacitors in electronics circuits is their ability to block direct current while allowing alternating current to pass.

### Electronics Components: Inductors and Inductance

An inductor is a coil that's designed for use in electronic circuits. Inductors take advantage of an important characteristic of coils called self inductance,

### Electronics Measurement: Inductance and Henrys

Inductance is only a momentary thing. Exactly how much of a momentary thing depends on the amount of inductance an inductor has. Inductance is measured in units called

### Electronics Measurement: Calculate RL Time Constants

The RL time constant indicates the amount of time that it takes to conduct 63.2% of the current that results from a voltage applied across an inductor. The value 63.2% derives from the calculus equations

### Electronics Measurement: Calculate Inductive Reactance

Although inductors oppose changes in current in an electronic circuit, they don't oppose all changes equally. All inductors present more opposition to fast current changes than they do to slower changes

### Electronics Components: Combine Inductors in Series or in Parallel

Just like resistors or capacitors, you can combine inductors in series or parallel within an electronic circuit. Then you can use simple equations to calculate the total inductance of the circuit. Note

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