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True Conspiracy: The Ford Pinto Memorandum

The Pinto automobile was marketed by Ford from 1971 to 1980 to try to feed the new American appetite for smaller cars. With its dinkster four-cylinder engine, the Pinto was battling the Volkswagon Beetle [more…]

SAT Subject Test U.S. History: The Fight for Independence


About 20 percent of the SAT Subject Test in U.S. History covers the period from 1763 to 1800. The majority of exam questions from this time period focus on political and economic history. Social, intellectual [more…]

Getting the President's Signature on a Congressional Bill

After Congress passes a bill, it doesn't become law without the president's signature, and if he vetoes it, it may not be enacted at all (although Congress has the option of overriding the veto). Thus, [more…]

Crunching Numbers: Writing in Scientific Notation

Scientific notation is a system for writing very large and very small numbers that makes them easier to work with. Every number can be written in scientific notation as the product of two numbers: [more…]

How the Enlightenment Affected Politics and Government

The Enlightenment, or Age of Enlightenment, rearranged politics and government in earthshaking ways. This cultural movement embraced several types of philosophies, or approaches to thinking and exploring [more…]

Discovering Italian High Renaissance Artists

If you are familiar with any Renaissance, it is with the Italian High Renaissance. In this article, you encounter names of master artists that have become household words. Now you can put those names in [more…]

Understanding the Interaction between Nouns and Adjectives in Arabic

Nouns and adjectives go hand in hand, and in Arabic you can manipulate nouns and adjectives to create little phrases. Unlike in the English language, nouns in Arabic always come before the adjective. [more…]

Useful Spanish Words and Phrases for Airport Travel

Navigating an airport in Spanish is a lot easier when you know some of the common Spanish words and phrases you may encounter. International airport travel will be a breeze after you master these words [more…]

Facing Racism and Sexism: Black Women in America

From the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, black women were in a difficult position. Between the civil rights and feminist movements, where did they fit in? They had been the backbone of the civil rights movement [more…]

Introducing Yourself in Portuguese

Introducing yourself in Portuguese is easy as torta de morango (toh-tah jee moh-dahng-goh; strawberry pie). Here are a couple different ways to do it: [more…]

Describing Parts of the Body in Spanish

Getting familiar with Spanish terms for parts of the body now can be helpful should you face a medical emergency while visiting a Spanish-speaking country later on. Fortunately, talking about various parts [more…]

Lewis and Clark: Profiling Meriwether Lewis

President Thomas Jefferson never appeared to waver in his decision to send Meriwether Lewis to lead the Corps of Discovery into the American West. Though he had turned Lewis down to lead a similar trip [more…]

SAT Subject Test Math: Getting (RE)acquainted with Numbers


Like anything else in life, math builds on information you already know. While many of the things we need to know we really did learn in kindergarten, it's a safe bet that most of us were not taught quadratic [more…]

Getting to Know Spanish Direct Object Pronouns

Conversational Spanish relies on the inclusion of direct object pronouns to create a more natural feel. Direct object pronouns are replacement words for direct object nouns. They help you avoid unnecessary [more…]

Crafting Your Character's Dialogue in Your Screenplay

A well-crafted verbal exchange is like a catchy song. Diction provides the lyrics; music provides the tune. Dialogue relies on the sounds of words as well as their definitions, on the rhythm of a conversation [more…]

Snuggling Up to the Language of Poetry

At times, language seems spiritual, as insubstantial as breath on a winter's day. Everything seems slathered and permeated with language — it's how we think and how we see. Yet language is also a physical [more…]

Avoiding Self-Publishing Mistakes

If you're about to self-publish your first book, you can make a handful of mistakes that can mean the difference between a successful publishing venture and a total bomb. Careful planning and implementing [more…]

Examining the Physical Properties of Water

The medium in which biological systems operate is water, and physical properties of water influence the biological systems. Therefore, it is important to understand some properties of water that you learned [more…]

Language, Ethnicity, and Tradition in the Middle East

A great tension exists between different ethnic groups in the Middle East. In South Asia, for example, Pashtuns, Punjabis, Sindhis, Hazaras, Tajiks, and other groups are in constant conflict. In 1988, [more…]

Surveying Sticky Sounds in Russian

Some Russian letters and sounds are hard for speakers of English. Take a look at a few of them and find out how to pronounce them. [more…]

Understanding Elected Offices

Elected officials come in three levels: federal, state, and local. You have a role in determining who gets elected to all three. You can think of these officials as three tiers of a wedding cake: As you [more…]

Shopping in French Stores

If you don't know where to start or even if you don't have the slightest idea of what you want to bring back, un grand magasin (ewn grahN mah-gah-zaN) [more…]

Conveying Uncertainty with the Spanish Subjunctive

The Spanish subjunctive mood doesn’t need to be positive. It simply needs to be uncertain, and uncertainty can take many forms, including doubt, impersonal opinion, and incomplete action. Use the subjunctive [more…]

A Few Jane Austen-Related Places to Visit

England has numerous sites where you can explore the life and work of Jane Austen. The following are just the tip of the iceberg. When you get to your hotel or bed and breakfast in London, find one of [more…]

Chemistry -- Subatomic Particles

The exploration of atomic structure began in 1911, when Ernest Rutherford, a New Zealander who worked in Canada and England, discovered that atoms had a dense central [more…]

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