balance sheet: A financial statement that shows the value of a company’s assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity on a given date. Total assets minus total liabilities equals owner’s equity.

being short: A situation that occurs when you have sold something you do not own. In commodities, if you enter into a contract to sell a commodity which you don’t own with a promise to deliver it at a set price on a future date, then you are short that commodity. In stocks, you are short a stock if you have sold it and borrowed the shares from a broker to deliver to the purchaser, with an obligation to replace the borrowed shares at a future date. Being short means that you’re bearish, or negative on the market, and that your goal is to make money when the security or commodity that you choose to short falls in price.

beta: A measure of a stock’s relative volatility. A stock with a higher beta can be expected to rise or fall more than the overall market, whereas a stock with a lower beta is less volatile than the overall market.

Black-Scholes model : A theoretical model used to calculate the fair market value of an option based on time to expiration, price of the underlying stock, historical volatility, strike price, and carrying costs.