valine : A nonessential amino acid that produces energy, which spares energy stored in your blood glucose. Valine occurs in substantial quantities in most foods and is an essential part of many proteins.

vanadium: This little known mineral may actually be required for maintaining health, although no clear scientific proof of this exists at present. Bones and teeth may use vanadium as a building material. Vanadium also plays a role in blood sugar balance and cardiovascular function.

vegans : People who eat only foods of plant origin.

vegetarians: People who eat vegetables, fruits and grains and usually eggs and dairy products.

vitamin A: A fat-soluble vitamin that acts as a moisturizing nutrient, promotes healthy bones and teeth, supports your reproductive system and helps your immune system fight infection.

vitamin B12; cyanocobalamin: This vitamin makes healthy red blood cells.

vitamin C; ascorbic acid: This vitamin speeds production of new cells in wound healing, protects the immune system, and helps synthesize hormones.