papillae: Small, rounded protuberances.

parasympathetic stimulation: Constricts the bronchi, dilates blood vessels, and increases glandular secretions.

patella: Knee cap.

perineurium: Dense connective tissue surrounding a bundle of nerve fibers called a fascicle in the peripheral nervous system.

periorbita: A covering of fibrous connective tissue.

pharyngotympanic tube: The eustachian tube.

pivot joints: Joints that include a bone shaped like a pivot and a ring made of bone or ligament. Pivot joints, such as the atlantoaxial joint of the cervical spine, have rotational movements.

plane joints: Joints with flat articular surfaces that allow for a sliding motion, such as the acromioclavicular joint of the shoulder.

plantarflex: To point your toes down.

popliteal fossa: A diamond-shaped space posterior to the knee joint, bordered by several muscles, skin, the popliteal fascia, the femur, and the joint capsule.

posterior: Closer to the rear. The spine is posterior to the abdominal muscles.

pronation: A medial rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces posteriorly (toward the rear).

proximal: Closer to the trunk or closer to the point of origin. The shoulder is proximal to the elbow.