# Excel 2010 Formulas & Functions

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### Using Parentheses to Change the Order of Operations in Excel 2010 Formulas

Many formulas that you create in Excel 2010 perform multiple operations. Excel follows the order of operator precedence when performing each calculation. This natural order of arithmetic operations is

### Using Absolute and Relative References in Excel 2010 Formulas

You can use three types of cell references in Excel 2010 formulas: relative, absolute, and mixed. Using the correct type of cell reference in formulas ensures that they work as expected when you copy them

### How to Insert Subtotals in an Excel 2010 Worksheet

You can use Excel 2010's Subtotals feature to subtotal data in a sorted list. To subtotal a list, you first sort the list on the field for which you want the subtotals, and then you designate the field

### How to Join Text Strings in Excel 2010 with the & Operator

In Excel 2010, you can use the ampersand (&) operator to concatenate (or join) separate text strings together. For example, in a client list worksheet that includes the last names in column A and the first

### Referring to Values or Formulas in Other Cells in Excel 2010 Formulas

Linking formulas are formulas in Excel 2010 that reference a location in the same worksheet, same workbook, or even a different workbook. When you create a linking formula, it brings forward the constant

### How to Build an Array Formula in Excel 2010

An array formula is a special formula that operates on a range of values in Excel 2010. When you build an array formula in a worksheet, you press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to insert an array formula in the array

### Understanding Excel 2010's Formula Error Values

If Excel 2010 can't properly calculate a formula that you enter in a cell, the program displays an error value in the cell as soon as you complete the formula entry. Excel uses several error values, all

### Understanding Excel 2010's Formula Auditing Tools

Excel 2010 offers some effective formula-auditing tools for tracking down the cell that's causing your error woes by tracing the relationships between the formulas in the cells of your worksheet. By tracing

### How to Trace Precedents and Dependents in Excel 2010 Formulas

Excel 2010 formulas may contain precedents and may serve as dependents to other formulas. Precedents are cells or ranges that affect the active cell's value.

### How to Check For and Evaluate Errors in Excel 2010 Formulas

The Evaluate Formula dialog box in Excel 2010 walks you through the steps used in calculating a result from a formula. This helps locate errors in formulas that are long or have precedents. For example

### Dealing with Circular References in Excel 2010 Formulas

A circular reference occurs when a cell in an Excel 2010 worksheet refers to itself, whether directly or indirectly. For example, if =100+A2 is entered into cell A2, then a direct circular reference has

### Creating Complex Formulas in Excel 2010

Excel can calculate complex formulas where you want to combine adding, multiplication, division, and more, but you have to write your formulas carefully so Excel understands the end result you're looking

### Applying Functions in Excel 2010

Excel uses functions for math that's more complicated than simple arithmetic. Functions often use one or more cell references or ranges and can perform a wide variety of math, including calculating averages
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