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Debating Who Actually Won the Civil War

Wars are won and lost for thousands of reasons. Civil wars, because of the bitterness and cruelty they entail, often result in long debates about why one side defeated the other. No one is ever satisfied [more…]

India's Caste System

Many Westerners have heard of India's caste system, but a thorough understanding of its ins and outs is still relatively uncommon. The following sections reveal the nitty-gritty of the caste system. [more…]

World War II Comes to America: Pearl Harbor

Japan's ambassadors delivered the first part of a final Japanese diplomatic note to U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull on December 6, 1941. On the morning of December 7, the final portion of the note [more…]

Examining the Leaders of North and South Vietnam

You can get a better understanding of the Vietnam War by taking a look at the leaders of North Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh) and South Vietnam (Ngo Dinh Diem). Getting to know more about the two leaders in Vietnam [more…]

Understanding the Origin of the Greek Gods

The most complete version of the Greek creation myths that survives is a poem called the Theogony ("Birth of the Gods") by a poet named Hesiod, who lived in the late eighth or early seventh century B.C [more…]

Exploring How the Civil War Began

Wars have many causes. No one should ever forget that wars are fought for political reasons and objectives. Essentially, people or nations go to war to protect a vital interest, defend territory from an [more…]

Napoleon's Josephine: A Rose by Any Other Name

Napoleon's greatest love would come from the Caribbean island of Martinique. Napoleon never went there, but this woman's father, Joseph Gaspard Tascher de la Pagerie, owned a sugar plantation, complete [more…]

India: From Ancient Economy to British Colony

India can lay claim to one of the world's oldest civilizations, and its economic history is truly long and complicated. [more…]

Understanding the Disputed Areas of the Middle East

Disputed areas may be the greatest threat to stability in the Middle East and the world. Disputed areas are, well . . . disputed because, in order to secure peace in the here and now, warring parties decided [more…]

Lewis and Clark: Wooing the Sioux

On their expedition, Lewis and Clark knew from their investigations in St. Louis that support and cooperation from the Sioux bands was vital to the success of American trade with the Missouri River tribes [more…]

Examining Rap's Origins

The rap music of today is an outgrowth of the mid-1970s hip-hop, a brash mixture of rhythm and boastful talking. Out of nowhere, the Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight, [more…]

Declaring Independence for America

Starting in 1763, England and her American colonies began to irritate each other almost incessantly. Once blood was spilled at Lexington and Concord, war became inevitable, even though there were some [more…]

Exploring the Ancient Pyramids

From the ancient civilizations of the Near East to the native peoples of Central America, pyramid building has been a common architectural design for thousands of years. [more…]

Adding Firepower with the Invention of Gunpowder

Between the twelfth and the eighteenth centuries, guns spread from China to western Asia, to Europe, and then around the world. They advanced from primitive experiments to precision technology. Warriors [more…]

Examining the Beginnings of World War II

Officially, World War II began when Nazi Germany invaded Poland in September 1939 and the French and English declared war against Germany as a result of that invasion. But the war's beginnings came long [more…]

How Historians View the American Revolution

In the 200 years that historians have written about the American Revolution, four major arguments, or schools of thought,have emerged. Each of them presents a firm argument about what the Revolution really [more…]

The Vietnam War Opposition in America Finds Meaning

Had the Vietnam conflict in 1964 been a brushfire, the war in 1967, by comparison, was a raging inferno. The United States had committed more than 365,000 troops to Vietnam by the beginning of 1967, and [more…]

True Conspiracy: The Ford Pinto Memorandum

The Pinto automobile was marketed by Ford from 1971 to 1980 to try to feed the new American appetite for smaller cars. With its dinkster four-cylinder engine, the Pinto was battling the Volkswagon Beetle [more…]

How the Enlightenment Affected Politics and Government

The Enlightenment, or Age of Enlightenment, rearranged politics and government in earthshaking ways. This cultural movement embraced several types of philosophies, or approaches to thinking and exploring [more…]

Discovering Italian High Renaissance Artists

If you are familiar with any Renaissance, it is with the Italian High Renaissance. In this article, you encounter names of master artists that have become household words. Now you can put those names in [more…]

Facing Racism and Sexism: Black Women in America

From the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, black women were in a difficult position. Between the civil rights and feminist movements, where did they fit in? They had been the backbone of the civil rights movement [more…]

Lewis and Clark: Profiling Meriwether Lewis

President Thomas Jefferson never appeared to waver in his decision to send Meriwether Lewis to lead the Corps of Discovery into the American West. Though he had turned Lewis down to lead a similar trip [more…]

Language, Ethnicity, and Tradition in the Middle East

A great tension exists between different ethnic groups in the Middle East. In South Asia, for example, Pashtuns, Punjabis, Sindhis, Hazaras, Tajiks, and other groups are in constant conflict. In 1988, [more…]

Surviving the Black Death

Europeans in the fourteenth century were looking at the world in a new way, seeing far-off places as desirable, worth finding out about, maybe worth acquiring. Yet before Europeans really got out and started [more…]

Napoleon's Waterloo

Waterloo is a small town a few miles south of Brussels, Belgium. It's an unassuming place, with a church, a few inns, and some homes surrounded by old stone farmhouses and lots of open fields. Those farms [more…]

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