LSAT For Dummies (with Free Online Practice Tests), 2nd Edition book cover

LSAT For Dummies (with Free Online Practice Tests), 2nd Edition

By: Lisa Zimmer Hatch and Scott A. Hatch Published: 08-22-2014

If you're preparing for law school, your single biggest hurdle is the Law School Admission Test or LSAT. This three and a half hour exam consisting of five multiple choice sections and one timed writing sample can make or break your legal aspirations. Fortunately, LSAT For Dummies, Premier PLUS 2nd Editionnow with access to practice tests online prepares you for the LSAT by giving you proven test-taking strategies and ample practice opportunities. From the book you'll gain the vital tools you need to understand the reasoning behind analytical reasoning, get a handle on logical reasoning, flaunt your talent in the writing section, master reading comprehension, and much more.

Articles From LSAT For Dummies (with Free Online Practice Tests), 2nd Edition

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LSAT Practice: Reading Comprehension Questions

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

You will encounter reading comprehension questions on the LSAT. These questions require you to read a longer passage and choose the best answer to questions about the passage. Give these sample questions a try. Reading comprehension sample questions Biologists often fail to recognize the importance of a species to an ecosystem until that species is no longer present in the ecosystem. A case in point is that of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum. Scientists and fishermen long considered the sea urchin a spiky pest that served no useful purpose; recreational divers would even feed sea urchins to fish just for fun. The last 20 years, however, have proven that the sea urchin does indeed play a valuable role in the marine environment. Sea urchins are members of the phylum Echinodermata, the category of invertebrate animals with spiny exterior shells, which also includes starfish, brittle stars, and sand dollars. Sea urchins have a spherical body contained in a hard shell that is covered with long sharp spines. They walk around on shorter spines located on the underside of their bodies. A sea urchin's mouth is also located on its underside; this mouth is a five-toothed structure called Aristotle's Lantern, adapted to scraping algae and organic matter from rocks and corals. Sea urchins eat a vast amount of algae. Exactly how much algae they consume has become clearer in the past two decades because urchins have virtually disappeared from many Atlantic environments. In 1983, a barge traveled from the Pacific to the Atlantic through the Panama Canal carrying a bacterium that proved devastating to the sea urchin population. Nearly all long-spined urchins in the tropical western Atlantic died as a result of this exposure. Without sea urchins to eat the algae, aquatic greenery grows out of control. It has completely covered some coral reefs. In Jamaica, before the sea urchins died off, algae covered just 1 percent of shallow reefs, but two years after the plague, it covered nearly 95 percent of shallow coral. Many reefs in the Bahamas have abruptly transformed from multicolored undersea wonderlands into monochromatic mossy-looking hillocks. Coral that is covered by algae quickly dies, unable to receive necessary sunlight and nutrients from the water. The algae cover also makes it difficult for both corals and sea urchins to breed, because their larvae cannot find a clean surface on which to anchor. Scientists have completely changed their views of sea urchins from that of the early 1980s. Sea urchins are one of the first organisms to show signs of stress when water quality is bad, so the Environmental Protection Agency has begun monitoring sea urchins as an indicator of water conditions. Other scientists have taken on the task of redistributing the remaining sea urchins to endangered coral reefs. They hope that the sea urchins will clean off the reefs and make it possible for both coral and sea urchins to breed successfully and restore the marine environment to its healthy state. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage? (A) Events of the last two decades have shown that sea urchins play a vital role in the maintenance of the ecosystems in which they live, contrary to what many scientists formerly assumed. (B) It is the duty of responsible scientists to manipulate environments to ensure that they remain in ecological balance, such as by transporting sea urchins to reefs that have become overgrown with algae. (C) Members of the phylum Echinodermata are often underappreciated but are extremely important to the health of coral reefs. (D) Excessive algae growth is a severe problem in the tropical western Atlantic, and if governments fail to take action in the very near future, all the coral reefs in that area could die. (E) Governments should educate their citizenry on the importance of keeping ecosystems in balance because this will help prevent people from abusing natural resources or introducing foreign substances that might be dangerous to local plants and animals. The primary purpose of the second paragraph is to (A) support the claim that sea urchins are important to their ecosystems (B) describe the appearance and eating habits of sea urchins (C) argue that the loss of sea urchins is devastating to the overall ecosystem (D) illustrate the attitude of scientists toward invertebrates (E) suggest that other members of the phylum Echinodermata might also eat algae Based on the passage, which one of the following best describes the relationship between sea urchins, starfish, brittle stars, and sand dollars? (A) They are all invertebrates that eat algae. (B) They were all devastated by the bacterium that entered the Atlantic in 1983. (C) They are all members of the same phylum. (D) They are all covered with long, sharp spines. (E) They can all be divided into five segments that radiate out from a center point. According to the passage, what happened to the sea urchin population in the tropical western Atlantic in the mid-1980s? (A) Fishermen and water sports enthusiasts systematically killed them off, hoping to eradicate what they believed was a pest. (B) A plague killed the coral, which became so covered with algae that sea urchins could no longer reproduce. (C) A sudden increase in triggerfish, one of the main predators of sea urchins, resulted in most juvenile sea urchins being eaten before they could reach breeding age. (D) A virus spread by other echinoderms caused sea urchins from the Bahamas to Jamaica to sicken and die. (E) A bacterium carried by a ship entering the Atlantic from the Pacific spread throughout the population and killed nearly all sea urchins. Answers A B C E

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LSAT Practice: Analytical Reasoning Questions

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The LSAT contains a section of questioning called analytical reasoning. This section will test your abilities to answer questions given multiple conditions. Make sure you have prepared yourself so you aren’t stumped on test day. Analytical reasoning sample questions Seven Roman noblemen — Antonius, Brutus, Cassius, Decimus, Octavius, Servilius, and Vipsanius — have to decide whether they support or oppose the rule of dictator Julius Caesar. Those who support Caesar call themselves Patriots; those who oppose Caesar call themselves Liberators. Each of the seven noblemen aligns himself with one of the two groups according to the following principles: Octavius and Cassius do not join the same group. Antonius and Decimus do not join the same group. If Decimus decides to be a Patriot, so does Servilius. If Brutus decides to be a Patriot, both Cassius and Vipsanius would be Liberators. If Octavius decides to be a Patriot, Servilius would be a Liberator. If Octavius joins the Liberators, which of the following must be true? (A) Antonius joins the Liberators. (B) Brutus joins the Liberators. (C) Decimus joins the Patriots. (D) Servilius joins the Patriots. (E) Vipsanius joins the Patriots. If Cassius and Vipsanius both join the Liberators, then which of the following must be false? (A) Antonius joins the Patriots. (B) Brutus joins the Liberators. (C) Decimus joins the Liberators. (D) Octavius joins the Patriots. (E) Servilius joins the Patriots. If Antonius and Vipsanius both join the Patriots, then which one of the following could be true? (A) Brutus and Cassius both join the Liberators. (B) Brutus and Octavius both join the Patriots. (C) Cassius and Decimus both join the Patriots. (D) Cassius and Octavius both join the Liberators. (E) Decimus and Servilius both join the Patriots. Which one of the following pairs of men cannot both be Liberators? (A) Antonius and Octavius (B) Antonius and Servilius (C) Antonius and Vipsanius (D) Cassius and Vipsanius (E) Octavius and Servilius What is the maximum number of noblemen who can be Patriots? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five Which one of the following could be an accurate and complete list of the Patriots? (A) Antonius, Cassius, Vipsanius (B) Antonius, Cassius, Decimus, Servilius (C) Antonius, Octavius, Servilius, Vipsanius (D) Brutus, Decimus, Octavius (E) Decimus, Servilius, Vipsanius Answers B. Brutus joins the Liberators. E. Servilius joins the Patriots. A. Brutus and Cassius both join the Liberators. B. Antonius and Servilius D. four A. Antonius, Cassius, Vipsanius

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LSAT Analytical Reasoning Practice Questions

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

You will see questions on the LSAT that deal with analytic reasoning. These questions require you to use your reasoning skills to answer questions that contain a number of conditions. Any practice you can do before test day will only help your ability to answer these questions and improve your confidence. Analytical reasoning sample questions Six plays are scheduled to be performed at the Dionysia, the annual theater festival in Athens. They are: Antigone, Clouds, Electra, Frogs, Helen, and Orestes. The plays will be performed on six consecutive days, beginning on Tuesday. In order to mix up comedy and tragedy, give the actors an occasional break, and accommodate the desires of the town fathers, the organizers must observe the following rules when arranging the schedule: The performance of Helen is scheduled for Thursday. Antigone must be performed on a day sometime after Orestes. At least one of the plays is performed between the performance of Antigone and the performance of Frogs. Exactly one of the plays is performed between the performances of Clouds and Frogs, and they must have a break of exactly one day between performances. Which one of the following is an acceptable schedule for the festival, starting with the play performed on Tuesday? (A) Antigone, Electra, Helen, Frogs, Orestes, Clouds (B) Electra, Orestes, Helen, Clouds, Antigone, Frogs (C) Frogs, Clouds, Helen, Orestes, Antigone, Electra (D) Orestes, Frogs, Helen, Clouds, Antigone, Electra (E) Orestes, Antigone, Frogs, Helen, Clouds, Electra Which one of the following must be true? (A) Either Antigone or Orestes is performed on Wednesday. (B) Either Antigone or Orestes is performed on Friday. (C) Either Clouds or Frogs is performed on Wednesday. (D) Either Clouds or Frogs is performed on Friday. (E) Either Electra or Orestes is performed on Saturday. Which play CANNOT be performed on Sunday? (A) Antigone (B) Clouds (C) Electra (D) Frogs (E) Orestes Which one of the following must be false? (A) Antigone and Clouds are performed on consecutive days, with no other play between them. (B) Exactly one play is performed between Antigone and Clouds. (C) Electra and Orestes are performed on consecutive days, with no other play between them. (D) Frogs and Orestes are performed on consecutive days, with no other play between them. (E) Exactly one play is performed between Helen and Orestes. Which one of the following is a complete and accurate list of the days on which Frogs could be performed? (A) Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday (B) Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday (C) Wednesday, Friday (D) Wednesday, Friday, Sunday (E) Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday Which one of the following CANNOT be true? (A) Clouds is performed on Wednesday. (B) Electra is performed on Wednesday. (C) Frogs is performed on Wednesday. (D) Orestes is performed on Tuesday. (E) Orestes is performed on Saturday. Answers D. Orestes, Frogs, Helen, Clouds, Antigone, Electra D. Either Clouds or Frogs is performed on Friday. E. Orestes C. Electra and Orestes are performed on consecutive days, with no other play between them. B. Electra is performed on Wednesday. D. Wednesday, Friday, Sunday

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Analytical Reasoning LSAT Practice

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The LSAT involves a section of questioning called analytical reasoning. You will definitely benefit from some practice when it comes to these questions. Take a look at the following examples to get an idea of what you will face on test day. Analytical reasoning sample questions A yoga studio offers classes in three kinds of yoga: ashtanga, bikram, and iyengar. It has five instructors — Caroline, Janice, Marty, Suzanne, and Virginia — each of whom teaches at least one of and as many as three of these kinds of yoga. The following conditions apply: Exactly two of the instructors teach classes in the same kind or kinds of yoga. Marty and Suzanne both teach iyengar. Caroline and Marty each teach fewer kinds of yoga than Janice. Caroline does not teach any kind of yoga taught by Virginia. Virginia does not teach any kind of yoga taught by Janice. Which one of the following must be true? (A) Caroline teaches fewer kinds of yoga than Virginia does. (B) Marty teaches fewer kinds of yoga than Suzanne does. (C) Suzanne teaches fewer kinds of yoga than Janice does. (D) Virginia teaches fewer kinds of yoga than Janice does. (E) Virginia teaches fewer kinds of yoga than Suzanne does. If Virginia does not teach iyengar, then which one of the following must be true? (A) Janice teaches bikram. (B) Janice teaches iyengar. (C) Marty teaches ashtanga. (D) Suzanne teaches ashtanga. (E) Virginia teaches bikram. Which one of the following could be a complete and accurate list of the instructors who teach only bikram? (A) Caroline (B) Janice (C) Caroline, Virginia (D) Marty, Suzanne (E) Caroline, Suzanne, Virginia Which one of the following could be a complete and accurate list of the instructors who teach iyengar? (A) Marty, Suzanne (B) Janice, Suzanne (C) Caroline, Janice, Suzanne (D) Caroline, Marty, Suzanne (E) Janice, Marty, Suzanne How many instructors must teach only one kind of yoga? (A) one (B) two (C) three (D) four (E) five If exactly three instructors teach ashtanga, which one of the following could be true? (A) Caroline teaches iyengar. (B) Janice does not teach ashtanga. (C) Marty teaches ashtanga. (D) Suzanne teaches bikram. (E) Suzanne does not teach ashtanga. Answers D. Virginia teaches fewer kinds of yoga than Janice does. B. Janice teaches iyengar. A. Caroline E. Janice, Marty, Suzanne C. three D. Suzanne teaches bikram.

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LSAT Reading Comprehension: How to Answer Big Picture Questions

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The reading comprehension section of the LSAT contains different types of questions. One you should be prepared for is the big picture question. Main idea questions and those that ask you to identify a passage's primary purpose regard the whole passage. Almost every passage has at least one question that asks you to see the big picture, and often it's the first question you answer for a particular reading passage. You can identify main idea questions by the language they contain. Here are some examples of the ways main idea questions may be worded: The author of the passage is primarily concerned with which one of the following? The author's primary goal (or purpose) in the passage is to do which one of the following? An appropriate title that best summarizes this passage is While you read the passage, look for its main idea and primary objective because you know you'll probably be asked about them. If you're asked a question about the passage's main idea, look for an answer that conveys an idea similar to your statement of the author's purpose. The best answer to a main idea question is general rather than specific. If an answer choice concerns information that's discussed in only one part of the passage, it probably isn't the correct answer. Here are some other ways to eliminate answer choices for main idea questions: Eliminate answer choices that contain information that comes only from the passage's middle paragraphs. These paragraphs probably deal with specific points rather than the main idea. Eliminate any answer choices that contain information that you can't find in the passage. These choices are irrelevant. Sometimes you can eliminate answer choices based on just the first words. For example, if you're trying to find the best answer to the author's purpose in an objectively written natural science passage, you can eliminate answers that begin with less objective terms, like to argue that, to criticize, and to refute the opposition's position that.

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LSAT Reading Comprehension: How to Answer Inference Questions

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

Reading inference questions on the LSAT ask you about information that's implied by the passage rather than directly stated. These questions test your ability to draw conclusions using evidence that appears in the passage. For inference questions, you're normally required to do one of these four things: Identify a logical consequence of a statement or of two statements taken together Infer the intended meaning of a word that's used figuratively in the passage Determine the author's attitude toward the passage's topic or subtopics Infer from attitudes portrayed in the passage how the author or others feel about different theories or events For instance, suppose you read a passage that compares the rapidity of wing beats between houseflies and horseflies. Information in paragraph two may state that the wings of horseflies beat at 96 bps (beats per second). Information in paragraph four may say that a Purple Winger is a type of horsefly. From this information, you can infer that the wings of the Purple Winger beat at a rate of 96 bps. This is an example of the first bullet in the preceding list: recognizing a logical consequence of the author's statements. The horsefly conclusion doesn't require that you make great leaps of logic. When you're answering an inference question, look for the choice that slightly extends the passage's meaning. Choices that go beyond the passage's scope are usually incorrect. Don't choose an answer that requires you to assume information that isn't somehow addressed by the passage. As you read the passage, look for clues to the author's tone as well as his or her purpose. You're bound to see questions that ask you to gauge how the author feels about the topic. Tone and style questions commonly ask you to figure out the author's attitude or complete the logical flow of the author's ideas. The author may be neutral, negative, or positive and may have different attitudes about different types of information within the same passage. It's up to you to determine the nature and degree of the author's feeling from the language used in the passage. With practice, you'll figure out how to distinguish between an enthusiastic author and one who's faking enthusiasm to mock the passage's subject. When making determinations about the author's style and tone, consider the passage as a whole. You may find one or two examples of praise in an article that's otherwise overwhelmingly critical of a subject. Don't make the mistake of quickly categorizing the passage from a few words that happen to catch your attention. Instead, determine the passage's main idea and the author's purpose (you need to do this to answer other questions, anyway), and use that information to help you discern the author's style and tone. For example, if an author's purpose is to argue against a particular point of view, critical words regarding the proponents of that viewpoint reveal an overall critical attitude. However, you wouldn't say the same about an author of a passage that supports a viewpoint overall but includes one or two criticisms of some supporters of the viewpoint. Style and tone questions may point you to a specific portion of a passage, or they may be about the whole passage. Even if a question does reference a specific part of the text, it does so in relation to the passage as a whole. For example, you can usually answer a question that asks you why an author chose to use certain words in a particular sentence only within the context of the entire passage. So if you know the main idea, author's purpose, and tone of the entire passage, you should be able to effectively deal with questions about the use of a particular word or phrase in one part of the passage. The LSAT primarily tests your logical reasoning ability, so expect to see a lot of inference questions in the reading comprehension section. They're easily recognizable because they usually contain infer, suggest, or imply in the question, such as these examples: It can be inferred from the passage that the Western concept of “need” differs from other definitions of need in which one of the following ways? Information in the passage implies that which one of the following is often the subject of Neruda's poetry? The author's stance toward the Western concept of “need” can best be described as The author brings up southern migration patterns most likely to suggest which one of the following? Sometimes knowing a great deal about a passage's topic can be a detriment because you may be tempted to answer questions based on your own knowledge rather than the passage itself. Simply answer the questions as they're asked, and make inferences that can be justified by information in the passage.

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LSAT Reading Comprehension: Sample Social Science Passage

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The reading comprehension section of the LSAT includes a passage about a different kind of science: social science. This passage type includes topics like philosophy, history, political science, archaeology, sociology, and psychology. The good news about social science passages is that their topics tend to crop up more in the news and in daily conversation than does, for example, physics! So you may be more comfortable with social science topics. Although passages about the social sciences are still mostly descriptive and informative, they're more likely to be persuasive than natural science passages, so you may see more variety in the kinds of tones these passages display. For instance, the personality and opinion of the author of this excerpt of a sample philosophy passage are very apparent: For most Americans and Europeans, this should be the best time in all of human history to live. Survival — the very purpose of all life — is nearly guaranteed for large parts of the world, especially in the West. This should allow people a sense of security and contentment. If life is no longer, as Thomas Hobbes famously wrote, “nasty, brutish, and short,” then should it not be pleasant, dignified, and long? To know that tomorrow is nearly guaranteed, along with thousands of additional tomorrows, should be enough to render hundreds of millions of people awe-struck with happiness. And modern humans, especially in the West, have every opportunity to be free, even as they enjoy ever-longer lives. Why is it, then, that so many people feel unhappy and trapped? The answer lies in the constant pressure of trying to meet needs that don't actually exist. The word need has been used with less and less precision in modern life. Today, many things are described as needs, including fashion items, SUVs, vacations, and other luxuries. People say, “I need a new car,” when their current vehicle continues to function. People with many pairs of shoes may still say they “need” a new pair. Clearly, this careless usage is inaccurate; neither the new car nor the additional shoes are truly “needed.” This author conveys a clear opinion regarding Western interpretations of needs. The dubious tone and clear opinion of this social science passage comes through in the placement of copious quotation marks and the introduction of rhetorical questions.

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LSAT Reading Comprehension: Sample Law-Related Passage

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

Every reading comprehension section on the LSAT includes a passage that deals with an aspect of law. You may read an interpretation of a public policy, an opinion on the significance of a court decision, an explanation of the effect a new law may have on the lawyer-client relationship, and so on. Law passages may be persuasive or more descriptive, such as this sample excerpt: In personam actions are said to be either local or transitory. The plaintiff's attorney may file a local action only where the subject matter of the litigation is located. For example, a party suing to foreclose a mortgage on real property must file the action in the county where the property is situated. Transitory actions, on the other hand, are much broader. The plaintiff may bring a transitory action in any county in any state where the defendant may be found and served with process. An action for personal injuries resulting from a defective bottle of beer is an example of a transitory action. In the present court system, the law determines in personam jurisdiction through mutual consent of the parties much more heavily than it used to. Corporations who do business in a state and motorists who drive across a state are said to have consented to the jurisdiction of that state's trial court under the long-arm statute, which makes it easier for a state to prosecute lawbreakers who don't reside in the state where they violated the law.

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LSAT Test Prep: Analytical Reasoning Sample

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

Don’t let the analytical reasoning questions on the LSAT make you crazy. With some practice, these questions will seem second nature. Give this LSAT sample a try to see if you need more test prep before test day. Analytical reasoning sample questions Seven famous chefs — Andrea, Berthe, Emilio, Jacques, Kimiko, Marthe, and Nigel — have volunteered their services for a presidential dinner. It consists of five courses, served in the following order: hors d'oeuvres, consommé, entrée, salade, and dessert. The dinner begins at 7 and ends at 10. One or two courses are served each hour, at 7, 8, and 9. The chefs refuse to work with one another, so each course is prepared by exactly one chef. No chef can prepare more than one course per hour. The following chefs have offered to prepare the following courses: Hors d'oeuvres: Berthe and Marthe Consommé: Andrea and Kimiko Entrée: Andrea and Nigel Salade: Berthe, Emilio, and Jacques Dessert: Emilio, Kimiko, and Marthe What is the minimum number of chefs who could prepare the entire meal? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five (E) six If the salade is served at 9, which one of the following could be a complete list of chefs who prepare a course served at 8? (A) Andrea and Kimiko (B) Berthe (C) Emilio and Nigel (D) Kimiko (E) Marthe Which one of the following CANNOT be a complete and accurate list of the chefs who prepare the meal? (A) Andrea, Berthe, Jacques, and Kimiko (B) Andrea, Berthe, Kimiko, and Marthe (C) Andrea, Emilio, Marthe, and Nigel (D) Andrea, Jacques, Kimiko, and Marthe (E) Berthe, Emilio, Jacques, and Marthe Which one of the following pairs of chefs could each prepare two courses served during the same two time slots? (A) Andrea and Berthe (B) Andrea and Kimiko (C) Andrea and Marthe (D) Berthe and Emilio (E) Kimiko and Nigel Which one of the following pairs of chefs could each prepare a course served at 7 and a course served at 9? (A) Andrea and Kimiko (B) Andrea and Marthe (C) Berthe and Kimiko (D) Berthe and Marthe (E) Emilio and Marthe Which one of the following could be a complete and accurate list of the chefs who prepare the meal? (A) Andrea, Berthe, Emilio, and Nigel (B) Andrea, Emilio, Jacques, Kimiko, and Nigel (C) Berthe, Emilio, Kimiko, and Marthe (D) Berthe, Emilio, Marthe, and Nigel (E) Emilio, Jacques, Kimiko, and Marthe Answers B. three A. Andrea and Kimiko E. Berthe, Emilio, Jacques, and Marthe A. Andrea and Berthe C. Berthe and Kimiko A. Andrea, Berthe, Emilio, and Nigel

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LSAT Test Prep: Reading Comprehension Sample

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

On the LSAT, you will have to answer reading comprehension questions. These questions test how well you read. So don’t get thrown if you have no previous knowledge of the content. THe answer is always somewhere in the passage. Reading comprehension sample questions Black Apollo, by Kenneth Manning, describes the life of Ernest Everett Just, one of the first black scientists in America. Manning recounts Just's impoverished origins in South Carolina, his adaptations to a white educational system, and his professional careers as a zoology professor at Howard University and as an embryologist at Marine Biological Laboratory. Despite countless difficulties imposed upon him by a world in which a black person was not supposed to practice science, Just became an internationally esteemed biologist. His story is one of courage, determination, and dedication to science. But Manning's goals are more far-reaching than to simply tell a story or describe one man's life. After all, though Just was a brilliant biologist, he was not ultimately pivotal to the development of either science or race relations in the 20th century. The issues brought out in his story, however, are pivotal. A comprehensive appreciation of the conditions that Just faced in his daily work offers a powerful lens through which to examine the development of science and racial boundaries in America. Manning wrote Just's story as a biography. In some respects, biography does not seem to be a promising medium for great historical work. Biographies simply tell a story. Most students receive their introductions to the history of science in the worshipful biographies of past scientific giants. Benjamin Franklin and Albert Einstein offer excellent examples to young students of how scientists contribute to society. Biographies are popular for children's reading lists (and bestseller lists) because they have simple subjects, can present clear moral statements, and manage to teach a little history at the same time. This simplicity of form, however, does not preclude the biography from being a powerful medium for historical work and social commentary. The biography yields particular rewards for the historian of science. One of the central principles of the history of science, indeed a central reason for the discipline, is to show that science is a product of social forces. This principle implies that historians and sociologists have insights on the practice of science that scientists, to whom the subject would otherwise fall, are less likely to produce. Moreover, if society does influence science, then it behooves historians to explain how such an important process works. The human orientation of the biography makes it an excellent medium in which historians can do this work. Were a researcher to investigate the development of scientific theory solely by reading the accounts written of a laboratory's experiments — by looking only at the “science” — the researcher would likely see a science moved by apparently rational forces toward a discernible goal. But this picture is incomplete and artificial. If that researcher examines science through the people who generated it, a richer mosaic of actors emerges. The science biography has the potential to reveal both the person through the science and the science through the person. From these perspectives, the forces of politics, emotions, and economics, each of which can direct science as much as rational thought, are more easily brought to light. Black Apollo is a riveting example of what a historian can accomplish with a skillful and directed use of biography. Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage? (A) Ernest Everett Just was an extremely important biologist during the 20th century, both because of his contributions to the field of embryology and because of his race. (B) Scientists tend to ignore the social, historical, and political forces that surround all scientific research and discovery, which makes their interpretations of scientific events incomplete. (C) Biographies are a popular genre for children's books because they can tell discrete stories in an accessible fashion, incorporating scientific knowledge into a person's life and thereby making it more interesting to readers. (D) Manning's work exemplifies how biography can be a powerful tool for a historian of science, who can use the genre to explore the effects of politics, economics, and emotions on the direction of scientific development. (E) Kenneth Manning wrote Black Apollo to criticize racial prejudices and to prove that Ernest Everett Just could have been much more successful if he had not been the victim of discrimination. According to the passage, the main goal of the discipline called history of science is to (A) illuminate the effects of social forces on scientists in a way that scientists themselves are unlikely to do (B) explain scientific discoveries in a manner that is easily understood by non-scientists (C) write biographies of important scientific figures that portray their work against a social and political background (D) influence scientific research by identifying the most important scientific contributions in history (E) provide an academic discipline that allows people without science training to study scientific concepts What is the primary purpose of the second paragraph? (A) to describe the many things Ernest Everett Just accomplished despite the racial prejudice he faced (B) to suggest that biography is really too simple a historical form for the historian of science to use to convey complex ideas (C) to explain why biography is both a popular historical genre and a powerful medium for explaining the significance of scientific discoveries (D) to argue against using biographies to teach children about scientific figures from the past (E) to advocate increased teaching of the sciences in schools and universities Answers D A C

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