Chemistry II For Dummies book cover

Chemistry II For Dummies

By: John T. Moore Published: 07-03-2012

The tools you need to ace your Chemisty II course

College success for virtually all science, computing, engineering, and premedical majors depends in part on passing chemistry. The skills learned in chemistry courses are applicable to a number of fields, and chemistry courses are essential to students who are studying to become nurses, doctors, pharmacists, clinical technicians, engineers, and many more among the fastest-growing professions. But if you're like a lot of students who are confused by chemistry, it can seem like a daunting task to tackle the subject. That's where Chemistry II For Dummies can help!

Here, you'll get plain-English, easy-to-understand explanations of everything you'll encounter in your Chemistry II class. Whether chemistry is your chosen area of study, a degree requirement, or an elective, you'll get the skills and confidence to score high and enhance your understanding of this often-intimidating subject. So what are you waiting for?

  • Presents straightforward information on complex concepts
  • Tracks to a typical Chemistry II course
  • Serves as an excellent supplement to classroom learning
  • Helps you understand difficult subject matter with confidence and ease

Packed with approachable information and plenty of practice opportunities, Chemistry II For Dummies is just what you need to make the grade.

Articles From Chemistry II For Dummies

7 results
7 results
Chemistry II For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Cheat Sheet / Updated 04-08-2022

Chemistry II is more than fires and smelly explosions. Chemistry II is more about solving calculations. In fact, Chemistry II has a lot more calculations and math than your Chemistry I class did. In your Chemistry II class, you need to master several formulas so you can calculate different mathematical problems, ranging from kinetics, different types of equilibrium, thermochemistry, and electrochemistry. This Cheat Sheet can serve as a quick reference to how to solve kinetics, thermodynamics, and different types of equilibrium problems.

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Calculating Solubility Equilibrium Problems

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The solubility product equation is used to describe the equilibrium situation when a not-so-soluble salt is dissolving in water. For the general dissociation of a sparingly soluble salt: In this equation, x+ and z– are the magnitude of the positive and negative charge, respectively; the equilibrium constant expression (solubility product expression) is Ksp = [Mx+]a[Xz–]b

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Tackling Thermodynamics Problems

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The Gibbs Free Energy is the best indicator about whether a reaction will be spontaneous or nonspontaneous. You'll need to know this as you study Chemistry II. It has the form: In this equation ΔG° is the Gibbs Free Energy of a reaction under standard conditions of 1 atm (or 1 bar) for gases and 1 M for solutions at 25°C; ΔH° is the enthalpy of the reaction under standard conditions; T is the Kelvin temperature; and ΔS° is the entropy of the reaction under standard conditions. A spontaneous process has °G < 0. A nonspontaneous process has ΔG > 0. When °G = 0, the process is at equilibrium.

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How to Solve Homogeneous Equilibrium Problems

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The equilibrium constant describes the relationship between the amounts of the reactants and the products at a certain temperature. You'll need to know the equilibrium constant as you study Chemistry II. For the general equilibrium: the equilibrium constant expression is: In the expression, K is the equilibrium constant, the subscript c indicates this constant is expressed in terms of concentrations (not pressures, p), the brackets (as usual) stand for molar (moles/L) concentration, the uppercase letters are the reactant and product species, and the lowercase superscripts are the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

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How to Calculate Kinetics Problems

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The study of kinetics, the speed of chemical reactions, is essential to the study of chemistry and is a major topic in any Chemistry II class. Knowing the concepts of kinetics can help your understanding of why some reactions are fast and others slow and why some simple reactions are slow and other, more complex reactions are fast. The reaction rate (the speed of reaction) is the change in the concentration of a reactant or product per the change in time. You can write it as: Chemists normally measure concentration in terms of molarity, M, and time is usually expressed in seconds, s, which means that the units of the reaction rate are M/s. You can express the number of units in other ways such as:

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Solving Acid-Base Equilibrium Problems

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

The acid and base equilibrium constant expressions describe the relationship between the amounts of reactants and products in aqueous acid-base systems. For the following general weak-acid equilibrium: the equilibrium constant expression is: For a general weak-base equilibrium: the equilibrium constant expression is: The concentration of water (or any pure liquid or solvent or solid) does appear in the equilibrium constant expression. K is the equilibrium constant, the subscript b indicates that this is an equilibrium constant expression for a weak base, and the brackets indicate molar concentrations.

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Ten Great Careers in Chemistry

Article / Updated 03-26-2016

All college chemistry majors must sooner or later ask the question: What can I do with a degree in chemistry? It's a good question. Here are some typical jobs that chemists might hold, in case you're thinking about your options. Patent attorney If you combine a degree in chemistry with a law degree, you could become a successful patent attorney. Patent attorneys perform patent searches, advise their clients on whether or not their formulation/invention is patentable, provide advice on such topics as product liability and intellectual property, and may even take cases to court for product infringement. A patent attorney with a background in chemistry is valuable to a company that deals with chemicals or chemical processes. Pharmaceutical/chemical sales If you like chemistry but don't enjoy being in the lab, then sales may be the job for you. Somebody has to sell all those chemicals and medicines, and buyers like to deal with somebody who knows their science. Salespeople have to answer customers' questions about the product, toxicity, side effects, and so on. The chemical or pharmaceutical salesperson has to be willing to travel a lot, servicing existing accounts and finding new customers. Forensic chemist You might imagine forensic chemists investigating crime scenes, chasing killers, and all that dramatic stuff you see on TV, but most forensic chemists spend at least their first year or so exclusively in the lab, analyzing evidence for drug residues. Some, after years of hard work, do get to work crime scenes. Forensic chemists also operate and maintain laboratory instruments, analyze biological fluids for DNA matches, analyze gunshot residues, examine hair or other fibers, and so on. Keeping detailed, meticulous records and reports is critical to this profession because forensic chemists may be called upon to testify in court about their findings. Biochemistry/biotechnology Do you like biology about as much as you like chemistry? If so, you might want to consider a career in biochemistry or biotechnology. Biochemists and biotechnologists work in research developing new genetic tests, work in the genetic engineering (cloning) area, and are involved in the development of new drugs. Others work as plant breeders, trying to develop more disease-resistant strains of crops. Still others work as biochemical development engineers, taking a biochemical process developed in the lab and scaling it through the plan stage to full plant production. Agricultural chemist Agricultural chemists, also called agrochemists, collect and analyze samples for nutrient levels as well as levels of pesticides, heavy metals, and toxins. They operate and maintain a wide range of instruments. Some agrochemists specialize in animal feeds; others specialize in the testing of pesticides. They may do presentations to such diverse groups as corporation CEOs and farmers as well as preparing reports showing data, conclusions, and recommendations. Material science Material scientists study the composition and structure of various materials with the goal of developing new products or improving existing ones. One goal is to lighten and strengthen existing products, such as golf clubs and tennis racquets. Some analyze failed products to determine the reason for the failure. Some are involved in quality control, both of raw materials and finished products, and some experiment on new ways to combine different materials. Food and flavor chemist Food and flavor chemists work in the research and development of new foods as well as ways of keeping foods fresher on the shelves. These chemists have to work within the regulations of the FDA, testing food additives and preservatives, developing new flavors, and analyzing food for nutrient levels or the presence of contaminants. The FDA and other governmental agencies hire food and flavor chemists as inspectors to ensure that regulations are followed in food processing and shipping. Water quality chemist Water quality chemists hold a wide variety of jobs, but all, in one way or another, help ensure that the public's drinking water is safe. Some are involved in designing water or wastewater treatment plants and water runoff systems for industries or agriculture. They may analyze water samples, looking for contaminants and making recommendations for appropriate treatment methods, or conduct environmental impact studies for industries of government agencies. They may also collect water usage data and use it to predict future water needs. Others use sophisticated computer programs to predict the movement of water and pollutants in the water supply or perform mathematical modeling of underground water resources. Cosmetic chemists Nearly everyone uses some type of cosmetic product, from lip balm to shaving cream. Each of these products has to be developed and tested, and that's what the cosmetic chemist does. The cosmetics formulator creates the cosmetic, and then another chemist tests it to be sure that it meets government regulations. When full production begins, another chemist ensures that both the raw materials and the finished product meet specifications by using analytical instrumentation. Cosmetic chemists are always in high demand. Chemistry teaching Teaching jobs in chemistry can range from teaching in public middle and high schools (bachelor's degree required) to junior or community college (master's degree required) to the university level (doctorate required). At the university level, you get to do research along with your teaching responsibilities. In fact, having your students do research with you is a great form of teaching that is rewarding and enjoyable.

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