Multiple Bonds in Covalent Bonding
Electrochemical Cells: Flashlight Cells
How to Balance Redox Equations

The Common Types of Chemical Reactions

Several general types of chemical reactions can occur based on what happens when going from reactants to products. The more common types of chemical reactions are as follows:

  • Combination

  • Decomposition

  • Single displacement

  • Double displacement

  • Combustion

  • Redox

Combination chemical reactions

In combination reactions, two or more reactants form one product. The reaction of sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride,

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and the burning of coal (carbon) to give carbon dioxide,

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are examples of combination reactions.

Depending on conditions or the relative amounts of the reactants, more than one product can be formed in a combination reaction.

Decomposition chemical reactions

Decomposition reactions are really the opposite of combination reactions. In decomposition reactions, a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler substances (elements and/or compounds).

The decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen gases,

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and the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to form oxygen gas and water,

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are examples of decomposition reactions.

Single displacement chemical reactions

In single displacement reactions, a more active element displaces (kicks out) another less active element from a compound. For example, if you put a piece of zinc metal into a copper(II) sulfate solution, the zinc displaces the copper, as shown in this equation:

image4.png

The notation (aq) indicates that the compound is dissolved in water — in an aqueous solution. Because zinc replaces copper in this case, it’s said to be more active. If you place a piece of copper in a zinc sulfate solution, nothing will happen.

The following table shows the activity series of some common metals. Notice that because zinc is more active in the table, it will replace copper, just as the preceding equation shows.

The Activity Series of Some Common Metals
Activity Metal
Most active Alkali and alkaline earth metals
Al
Zn
Cr
Fe
Ni
Sn
Pb
Cu
Ag
Least Active Au

Double displacement chemical reactions

In single displacement reactions, only one chemical species is displaced. In double displacement reactions, or metathesis reactions, two species (normally ions) are displaced. Most of the time, reactions of this type occur in a solution, and either an insoluble solid (precipitation reactions) or water (neutralization reactions) will be formed.

Precipitation reactions

If you mix a solution of potassium chloride and a solution of silver nitrate, a white insoluble solid is formed in the resulting solution. The formation of an insoluble solid in a solution is called precipitation.

Here is the molecular equation for this double-displacement reaction:

image5.png

The white insoluble solid that’s formed is silver chloride.

Neutralization reactions

The other type of double-displacement reaction is the reaction between an acid and a base. This double-displacement reaction, called a neutralization reaction, forms water. Take a look at the mixing solutions of sulfuric acid (auto battery acid) and sodium hydroxide (lye).

Here is the molecular equation for this reaction:

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Combustion chemical reactions

Combustion reactions occur when a compound, usually one containing carbon, combines with the oxygen gas in the air. This process is commonly called burning. Heat is the most-useful product of most combustion reactions.

Here’s the equation that represents the burning of propane:

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Propane belongs to a class of compounds called hydrocarbons, compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen. The product of this reaction is heat.

Combustion reactions are also a type of redox reaction.

Redox chemical reactions

Redox reactions, or reduction-oxidation reactions, are reactions in which electrons are exchanged:

image8.png image9.png image10.png

The preceding reactions are examples of other types of reactions (such as combination, combustion, and single-replacement reactions), but they’re all redox reactions. They all involve the transfer of electrons from one chemical species to another. Redox reactions are involved in combustion, rusting, photosynthesis, respiration, batteries, and more.

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Electronegativity and Polar Covalent Bonding
Polyatomic Ions: Names and Symbols
How Ionic Compounds Are Named
How the Electroplating Process Works
Positive and Negative Ions: Cations and Anions
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