Cheat Sheet

Python for Data Science For Dummies Cheat Sheet

From Python for Data Science For Dummies

By John Paul Mueller, Luca Massaron

Python is an incredible programming language that you can use to perform data science tasks with minimal effort. The huge number of available libraries means that the low-level code you normally need to write is likely already available from some other source. All you need to focus on is getting the job done. With that in mind, this cheat sheet helps you access the most commonly needed reminders for making your programming experience fast and easy.

The 8 Most Common Python Programming Errors

Developers everywhere make errors at times. However, you might be able to save some time and work if you know about the most frequent types of programming errors that people make with Python. The following list tells you about these common mistakes:

  • Having the incorrect indentation: Many Python features rely on indentation. For example, when you create a new class, everything in that class is indented under the class declaration. The same is true for decision, loop, and other structural statements. If you find that your code is executing a task when it really shouldn’t, start reviewing the indentation you’re using.

  • Using the assignment operator instead of the equality operator: When performing a comparison between two objects or value, you just use the equality operator (==), not the assignment operator (=). The assignment operator places an object or value within a variable and doesn’t compare anything.

  • Putting function calls in the wrong order when creating complex statements: Python always executes functions from left to right. So the statement MyString.strip().center(21, “*”) produces a different result than MyString.center(21, “*”).strip(). When you encounter a situation in which the output of a series of concatenated functions is different from what you expected, you need to check function order to ensure that each function is in the correct place.

  • Misplacing punctuation: It’s possible to put punctuation in the wrong place and create an entirely different result. Remember that you must include a colon at the end of each structural statement. In addition, parentheses placement is critical. For example, (1 + 2) * (3 + 4), 1 + ((2 * 3) + 4), and 1 + (2 * (3 + 4)) all produce different results.

  • Using the incorrect logical operator: Most of the operators don’t present developers with problems, but the logical operators do. Remember to use and to determine when both operands must be True and or when either of the operands can be True.

  • Creating count-by-one errors on loops: Remember that a loop doesn’t count the last number you specify in a range. So if you specify the range [1:11], you actually get output for values between 1 and 10.

  • Having the wrong capitalization: Python is case sensitive, so MyVar is different from myvar and MYVAR. Always check capitalization when you find that you can’t access a value you expected to access.

  • Spelling something wrong: Even seasoned developers suffer from spelling errors at times. Ensuring that you use a common approach to naming variables, classes, and functions does help. However, even a consistent naming scheme won’t always prevent you from typing MyVer when you meant to type MyVar.

Line Plot Styles

Whenever you create a plot in Python, you need to identify the sources of information using more than just the lines. Creating a plot that uses differing line types and data point symbols makes the plot much easier for other people to use. The following table lists the line plot styles.

Color Marker Style
Code Line Color Code Marker Style Code Line Style
b blue . point Solid
g green o circle : Dotted
r red x x-mark -. dash dot
c cyan + plus Dashed
m magenta * star (none) no line
y yellow s square
k black d diamond
w white v down triangle
^ up triangle
< left triangle
> right triangle
p 5-point star
h 6-point star

Remember that you can also use these styles with other kinds of plots. For example, a scatter plot can use these styles to define each of the data points. When in doubt, try the styles out to see whether they’ll work with your particular plot.

Common IPython Magic Functions

It’s kind of amazing to think that IPython provides you with magic, but that’s precisely what you get with the magic functions. A magic function begins with either a % or %% sign. Those with a % sign work within the environment, and those with a %% sign work at the cell level.

The following list provides you with a few of the most common magic functions and their purpose. To obtain a full listing, type %quickref and press Enter in the IPython console or check out the full listing.

Magic Function Type Alone Provides Status? Description
%%timeit No Calculates the best time performance for all the instructions
in a cell, apart from the one placed on the same cell line as the
cell magic (which could therefore be an initialization
instruction).
%%writefile No Writes the contents of a cell to the specified file.
%alias Yes Assigns or displays an alias for a system command.
%autocall Yes Makes it possible to call functions without including the
parentheses. The settings are Off, Smart (default), and Full. The
Smart setting applies the parentheses only if you include an
argument with the call.
%automagic Yes Makes it possible to call the line magic functions without
including the % sign. The settings are False (default) and
True.
%cd Yes Changes directory to a new storage location. You can also use
this command to move through the directory history or to change
directories to a bookmark.
%cls No Clears the screen.
%colors No Specifies the colors used to display text associated with
prompts, the information system, and exception handlers. You can
choose between NoColor (black and white), Linux (default), and
LightBG.
%config Yes Makes it possible to configure IPython.
%dhist Yes Displays a list of directories visited during the current
session.
%file No Outputs the name of the file that contains the source code for
the object.
%hist Yes Displays a list of magic function commands issued during the
current session.
%install_ext No Installs the specified extension.
%load No Loads application code from another source, such as an online
example.
%load_ext No Loads a Python extension using its module name.
%lsmagic Yes Displays a list of the currently available magic
functions.
%matplotlib Yes Sets the backend processor used for plots. Using the inline
value displays the plot within the cell for an IPython Notebook
file. The possible values are: gtk’, ‘gtk3’,
‘inline’, ‘nbagg’, ‘osx’,
‘qt’, ‘qt4’, ‘qt5’,
‘tk’, and ‘wx’.
%paste No Pastes the content of the clipboard into the IPython
environment.
%pdef No Shows how to call the object (assuming that the object is
callable).
%pdoc No Displays the docstring for an object.
%pinfo No Displays detailed information about the object (often more than
provided by help alone).
%pinfo2 No Displays extra detailed information about the object (when
available).
%reload_ext No Reloads a previously installed extension.
%source No Displays the source code for the object (assuming that the
source is available).
%timeit No Calculates the best performance time for an instruction.
%unalias No Removes a previously created alias from the list.
%unload_ext No Unloads the specified extension.

Scikit-Learn Method Summary

Scikit-learn is a focal point for data science work with Python, so it pays to know which methods you need most. The following list gives you a brief overview of the most important methods used for data analysis.

  • feature_extraction.FeatureHasher

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: The hashing trick, allowing you to accommodate a large number of features in your dataset

  • preprocessing.Binarizer

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: Create binary variables (feature values to 0 or 1)

  • preprocessing.Imputer

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: Missing values imputation

  • preprocessing.MinMaxScaler

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: Create variables bound by a minimum and maximum value

  • preprocessing.OneHotEncoder

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: Transform categorical integer features into binary ones

  • preprocessing.StandardScaler

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: Variable standardization by removing the mean and scaling to unit variance

  • feature_extraction.text.CountVectorizer

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: Convert text documents into a matrix of count data

  • feature_extraction.text.HashingVectorizer

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: Directly convert your text using the hashing trick

  • feature_extraction.text.TfidfVectorizer

    Usage: Preparing your data

    Description: Creates a dataset of TF-IDF features.

  • feature_selection.RFECV

    Usage: Feature selection

    Description: Automatic feature selection

  • decomposition.PCA

    Usage: Dimensionality reduction

    Description: Principal component analysis (PCA)

  • decomposition.RandomizedPCA

    Usage: Dimensionality reduction

    Description: Principal component analysis (PCA) using randomized SVD

  • cross_validation.cross_val_score

    Usage: Cross-validation phase

    Description: Estimate the cross-validation score

  • cross_validation.KFold

    Usage: Cross-validation phase

    Description: Divide the dataset into k folds for cross validation

  • cross_validation.StratifiedKFold

    Usage: Cross-validation phase

    Description: Stratified validation that takes into account the distribution of the classes you predict

  • cross_validation.train_test_split

    Usage: Cross-validation phase

    Description: Split your data into training and test sets

  • grid_search.GridSearchCV

    Usage: Optimization

    Description: Exhaustive search in order to maximize a machine learning algorithm

  • linear_model.LinearRegression

    Usage: Prediction

    Description: Linear Regression

  • linear_model.LogisticRegression

    Usage: Prediction

    Description: Linear Logistic Regression

  • neighbors.KNeighborsClassifier

    Usage: Prediction

    Description: K-Neighbors classification

  • naive_bayes.MultinomialNB

    Usage: Prediction

    Description: Multinomial Naïve Bayes

  • metrics.accuracy_score

    Usage: Solution evaluation

    Description: Accuracy classification score.

  • metrics.f1_score

    Usage: Solution evaluation

    Description: Compute the F1 score, balancing accuracy and recall

  • metrics.mean_absolute_error

    Usage: Solution evaluation

    Description: Mean absolute error regression error

  • metrics.mean_squared_error

    Usage: Solution evaluation

    Description: Mean squared error regression error

  • metrics.roc_auc_score

    Usage: Solution evaluation

    Description: Compute Area Under the Curve (AUC) from prediction scores