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### Statics: How to Calculate a Force's Moment

In statics, *m**oments* are effects (of a force) that cause rotation. When computing equilibrium, you must be able to calculate a moment for every force on your free-body diagram. To determine a force's moment [more…]

### Checklist for Solving Statics Problems

Solving statics problems can be complicated; each problem requires a list of items to account for and equations to create and solve. Solve statics problems with ease by using this checklist: [more…]

### Statics: Computing Submerged Surface Pressures

When working submerged surface problems in statics, remember that all submerged surfaces have a fluid acting upon them, causing pressure. You must compute two pressures: the hydrostatic pressure resultant [more…]

### Calculating a Region or Load's Center of Area: Centroids

The *centroid* or *center of area* of a geometric region is the geometric center of an object's shape. Centroid calculations are very common in statics, whether you're calculating the location of a distributed [more…]

### Statics: Developing Shear and Moment Diagrams

*Shear and moment diagrams* are a statics tool that engineers create to determine the internal shear force and moments at all locations within an object. Start by locating the critical points and then sketching [more…]

### Cartesian Vector Formulas for Solving Statics Problems

In many statics problems, you must be able to quickly and efficiently create vectors in the Cartesian plane. Luckily, you can accomplish your Cartesian vector creations easily with the handy vector formulas [more…]

### Statics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

As with any branch of physics, solving statics problems requires you to remember all sorts of calculations, diagrams, and formulas. The key to statics success, then, is keeping your shear and moment diagrams [more…]

### Important Thermodynamic Equations and Formulas

Thermodynamics is filled with equations and formulas. Here’s a list of the most important ones you need to do the calculations necessary for solving thermodynamics problems. [more…]

### Conversion Factors for Physical Measurements

Sooner or later, you’re going to have to convert from one unit of physical measurement to another. This list gives you some of the most common conversion factors you need in thermodynamics. [more…]

### Physical Constants in Thermodynamics

You run across a few physical constants when working out thermodynamics problems. Following is a list of the constants you need when you’re working with potential energy, pressure, or the ideal gas law [more…]

### Thermodynamics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Thermodynamics sounds intimidating, and it can be. However, if you hone in on the most important thermodynamic formulas and equations, get comfortable converting from one unit of physical measurement to [more…]

### Reflection and Refraction Equations for Predicting Light's Direction

*Reflection* and *refraction* are two processes that change the direction light travels. Using the equations for calculating reflection and refraction, you can predict where rays encountering a surface will [more…]

### Equations for Optical Imaging

Imaging is a key function of optics. Specific optics equations can help you determine the basic characteristics of an image and predict where it will form. Use the following optics equations for your imaging [more…]

### Optical Polarization Equations

*Optical polarization* is the orientation of the planes of oscillation of the electric field vectors for many light waves. Optical polarization is often a major consideration in the construction of many [more…]

### Optical Interference Equations

*Optical* *interference* is just the interaction of two or more light waves. Optical interference is useful in many applications, so you need to understand some basic equations related to this optical phenomenon [more…]

### Optical Diffraction Equations

*Diffraction* is light's response to having something mess with its path, so diffraction occurs only when something blocks part of the wavefront. Diffraction is the phenomenon where light bends around an [more…]

### Equations for the Characteristics of Fiber-Optic Fibers

Besides imaging, fiber-optic networks are probably the largest application of optics. Fiber optics are very long, thin glass fibers that transfer information-bearing light from one place to another, but [more…]

### Optics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Optics covers the study of light. Three phenomena — reflection, refraction, and diffraction — help you predict where a ray or rays of light will go. Other important optics topics include interference, [more…]

### Physics Equations and Formulas

Physics is filled with equations and formulas that deal with angular motion, Carnot engines, fluids, forces, moments of inertia, linear motion, simple harmonic motion, thermodynamics, and work and energy [more…]

### A List of Physics Constants

Physics constants are physical quantities with fixed numerical values. The following list contains the most common physics constants, including Avogadro’s number, Boltzmann’s constant, the mass of electron [more…]

### Physics I For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Physics involves a lot of calculations and problem solving. Having on hand the most frequently used physics equations and formulas helps you perform these tasks more efficiently and accurately. This Cheat [more…]

### Ohm’s Law in Electronics

Sometimes in electronics you have no alternative but to whip out your calculator and do a little math. The most likely reason for doing this is to calculate how much resistance you need for a given situation [more…]

### String Theory: Gravity as Geometry

The theory of the space-time continuum already existed, but under general relativity Einstein was able to describe gravity as the bending of space-time geometry. Einstein defined a set of [more…]

### String Theory Creates a Theory of Everything

String theory is a type of high-energy theoretical physics, practiced largely by particle physicists. It’s a *quantum field theory* that describes the particles and forces in our universe based on the way [more…]

### A Quick Look at String Theory

String theory was originally developed in 1968 as a theory that attempted to explain the behavior of *hadrons* (such as protons and neutrons, the particles that make up an atomic nucleus) inside particle [more…]