# Digital Electronics

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### The Difference between Analog and Digital Electronics

All of electronics can be divided into two broad categories: analog and digital. One of the most common examples of the difference between analog and digital devices is a clock. On the analog clock, the

### Digital Electronics: Numbering Systems

Most digital electronic circuits work with the binary number system. But what is a number system? A number system is simply a way of representing numeric values. Number systems use symbols called

### Digital Electronics: Binary Basics

Digital electronic circuits rely on the binary number system. Thus, before you can understand the details of how digital circuits work, you need to understand how the binary numbering system works.

### Digital Electronics: Logical Operations

One of the things that makes binary so useful in electronics is that it’s very efficient at handling special operations called logical operations. Logical operations

### Digital Electronics: How to Use Windows Calculator for Binary Conversions

In the course of working digital electronics projects, it’s unlikely that you will have to convert a number between binary and decimal. If you do find that you need to convert binary numbers to decimal

### Digital Electronics Projects: How to Use Switches to Build Gates

To give you an idea of how basic gates work, these electronics projects show you how to assemble an AND gate, an OR gate, and an XOR gate using simple DPDT knife switches. In actual practice, gate circuits

### Electronics Components: Introducing Microcontrollers

A microcontroller is a complete computer on a single electronic chip. They can be purchased for \$50 or less. Like all computer systems, microcomputers consist of several basic subsystems:

### Electronics Components: Introducing the BASIC Stamp

The BASIC Stamp is an electronic microcontroller made by Parallax, a company started by two kids fresh out of high school in 1986. A BASIC Stamp is an essentially complete, self-contained computer system

### Electronics Components: Buying a BASIC Stamp

A BASIC Stamp is an essentially complete, self-contained computer system for use in electronic circuits. Although you can purchase a BASIC Stamp microcontroller by itself, the easiest way to get into BASIC

### Electronics Components: BASIC Stamp Prototyping Boards

There are two kinds of BASIC Stamp prototyping boards that you can consider for your electronics projects — a BASIC Stamp HomeWork board and a BASIC Stamp Board of Education.

### Electronics Components: Connect I/O Pins on a HomeWork Board

Before you start writing programs to run on a BASIC Stamp to add special effects to your electronics projects, you must first build the circuit(s) that will connect to the I/O pins on the Stamp. Once the

### Digital Electronics: How to Install the BASIC Stamp Editor and Connect to the Stamp

To tell the BASIC Stamp what you want it to do in your digital electronics project, you must program it. The BASIC Stamp Windows Editor is the software that you use on your computer to create programs

### Digital Electronics: Vixen for Parallel-Port Control

If you want to create elaborate scripts for controlling devices connected via a computer’s parallel port, you should look into Vixen, a free software program that makes it easy to sequence your parallel

### Control Your Electronics through a Parallel Port

Don’t throw away that old computer! If it has a parallel port, you can use it to control your electronic gadgets. Until a few years ago, all computers came equipped with a

### Digital Electronics: Pinout Assignments for a Parallel Port

The pins on a parallel port that you’re most interested in for your electronics projects are pins 2 through 9 — the eight data pins that are collectively called the

### Digital Electronics: How to Design a Parallel-Port Circuit

Each of the eight data output pins on a parallel port provides 5 V DC to your electronic circuit. That amount of voltage can source about 10 mA or 12 mA — enough to drive an LED directly. Alternatively

### Digital Electronics: DB25 Connectors in a Parallel-Port Circuit

To build your own electronic circuits that interface with a parallel port, you need to use a DB25 connector that attaches to your electronic circuit. The standard parallel port on a computer uses a DB25

### Digital Electronics: Control Parallel-Port Output from an MS-DOS Prompt

You need some special software on the computer to send data to the parallel port to control the functions of your electronic circuit. Fortunately, you don’t have to be a programmer to create this software

### Digital Electronics: Kit 74 DOS Commands

When controlling your electronic projects through a parallel port, the Kit 74 DOS software consists of three commands — RELAY, DELAY, and WAITFOR — that you can run from a command prompt.

### Digital Electronics: How to Create a Command Script in Kit 74 DOS

Kit 74 DOS software, used to control your electronic projects through a parallel port, consists of three commands — RELAY, DELAY, and WAITFOR. You can easily create command scripts that can execute a series

### Digital Electronics: Seven-Segment Displays

A seven-segment display is an electronic array of seven LEDs arranged in a way that can display numerals as well as some alphabetic characters. You can purchase an inexpensive

### Electronics Projects: Build a Seven-Segment Display Countdown Timer

This electronics project presents a breadboard circuit that connects a seven-segment display to seven of the eight output pins of a parallel port. You need a computer with a parallel port and the Kit 74

### Electronics Projects: How to Build a Motor Driver

This project presents a breadboard circuit that drives a small 3 V DC motor from a parallel port. Because this motor uses much more current than a parallel port can handle, a ULN2003 darlington array IC

### Electronics Projects: How to Use a Kit 74 Relay Controller

One of the best ways to interface your electronic gadgets to a computer via the parallel port is with an inexpensive build-it-yourself kit called the Kit 74. You can purchase this kit from various sources

### Electronics Basics: What is a Latch Circuit

A latch is an electronic logic circuit that has two inputs and one output. One of the inputs is called theSET input; the other is called theRESET input.

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