Electronics

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Electronics Projects: Build a Seven-Segment Display Countdown Timer

This electronics project presents a breadboard circuit that connects a seven-segment display to seven of the eight output pins of a parallel port. You need a computer with a parallel port and the Kit 74 [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a Motor Driver

This project presents a breadboard circuit that drives a small 3 V DC motor from a parallel port. Because this motor uses much more current than a parallel port can handle, a ULN2003 darlington array IC [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Use a Kit 74 Relay Controller

One of the best ways to interface your electronic gadgets to a computer via the parallel port is with an inexpensive build-it-yourself kit called the Kit 74. You can purchase this kit from various sources [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a Common-Emitter Proximity Detector

The combination of an infrared light-emitting diode (IR LED) and a photodiode is often used as a proximity detector, an electronic gadget that detects when an object is nearby. [more…]

Electronics Basics: What is a Latch Circuit

A latch is an electronic logic circuit that has two inputs and one output. One of the inputs is called theSET input; the other is called theRESET input. [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a Latch Circuit

Electronic latch circuits can be either active-high or active-low. The difference is determined by whether the operation of the latch circuit is triggered by HIGH or LOW signals on the inputs. [more…]

Electronics Basics: What is a Gated Latch

In the field of electronics, a gated latch is a latch that has a third input that must be active in order for the SET and RESET inputs to take effect. This third input is sometimes called ENABLE because [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a Gated Latch

This electronics project shows you how to build a gated D latch using two 4011 Quad 2-Input NAND gates. Two 4011 chips are required because the NAND gate requires a total of five gates [more…]

Digital Electronics: What is a Flip-Flop?

In the parlance of electronics, a flip-flop is a special type of gated latch. The difference between a flip-flop and a gated latch is that in a flip-flop, the inputs aren't enabled merely by the presence [more…]

Digital Electronics: Types of Flip-Flop Circuits?

In electronics, a flip-flop is a special type of gated latch circuit. There are several different types of flip-flops. The most common types of flip flops are: [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a D Flip-Flop Circuit

A D flip-flop electronic circuit has just one input in addition to the CLOCK input. This input is called the DATA input. When the clock is triggered, the Q output is matched to the DATA input. Thus, if [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a T Flip-Flop Circuit

The output of a T flip-flop alternates between HIGH and LOW with each clock pulse. Toggles are widely used in electronic logic circuits because they can be combined to form counting circuits that count [more…]

Electronics: How to Debounce a Clock Input

When you use a mechanical switch to trigger the electronic clock input of a flip-flop, the switch will very likely have some mechanical bounce. This bounce happens when the switch contacts don’t close [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a Parallel-Port LED Flasher

This electronics project presents a simple breadboard circuit that connects eight LEDs to the eight output pins of a parallel port. To complete this project, you need to have a computer with a parallel [more…]

Electronics Components: How to Create Infrared Light

The easiest way to electronically create infrared light is by using a special light-emitting diode (LED) that operates in the infrared spectrum. Infrared LEDs [more…]

Electronics Projects: How to Build a Common-Collector Proximity Detector

A proximity detector is an electronic gadget that detects when an object is nearby. It can be made by combining an infrared light-emitting diode (IR LED) and a photodiode. [more…]

Boolean Logic and Electronic Logic Gates

In digital electronics, Boolean logic refers to the manipulation of binary values in which a 1 represents the concept of true and a 0 represents the concept of [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NOT Gates

The simplest of all logic gates in electronics is the NOT gate, which is also called an inverter. A NOT gate has just one input, and its output is the opposite of the input. If the input is LOW, the output [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: AND Gates

A two-input AND gate is an electronic logic gate that has two inputs and one output. The output is HIGH only if both of the inputs are HIGH. Any other combination of inputs results in the output’s being [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: OR Gates

Of all basic electronics logic gates, the OR gate is the most likely to produce a HIGH output. An OR gate produces a HIGH output if any of the inputs is HIGH. The output from an OR gate is LOW only if [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NAND Gates

A NAND gate is an electronic logic gate that is a combination of an AND gate and a NOT gate. In fact, the name NAND is a contraction of NOT and AND. The output of a NAND gate is LOW when both of the inputs [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: NOR Gates

A NOR gate is a combination of the electronics logic gates OR and NOT. As with NAND, the name NOR is a contraction of NOT and OR. The output of a NOR gate is LOW when any of its input are HIGH. Otherwise [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: XOR and XNOR Gates

There are two remaining gates of the primary electronics logic gates: XOR, which stands for Exclusive OR, and XNOR, which stands for Exclusive NOR. In an XOR gate, the output is HIGH if one, and only one [more…]

Electronics Logic Gates: De Morgan’s Theorem

De Morgan’s Theorem was created by Augustus De Morgan, a 19th-century mathematician who developed many of the concepts that make Boolean logic work with electronics. Among De Morgan’s most important work [more…]

Digital Electronics: Darlington Arrays to Drive High-Current Outputs

Two electronic transistors can be connected to form a Darlington transistor (sometimes called a Darlington pair), which can switch much more current than the collector-emitter circuit of a standard transistor [more…]

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