# Electronics

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### Sinusoidal Functions and Circuit Analysis

The sinusoidal functions (sine and cosine) appear everywhere, and they play an important role in circuit analysis. The sinusoidal functions provide a good approximation for describing a circuit’s input

### How to Perform Complex Processing with Op Amps

If you understand the basic building blocks of op amp circuits, you’re ready to tackle complex processing actions with op amps. Using op amp circuits, you can analyze an instrumentation amplifier, solve

### Op Amp Circuits and Circuit Analysis

The op amp circuit is a powerful took in modern circuit applications. You can put together basic op amp circuits to build mathematical models that predict complex, real-world behavior. Commercial op amps

### Analyze Noninverting Op Amp Circuits

Use op amp circuits to build mathematical models that predict real-world behavior.The mathematical uses for signal processing include noninverting and inverting amplification. One of the most important

### Analyze Inverting Op Amp Circuits

An inverting amplifier takes an input signal and turns it upside down at the op amp output. When the value of the input signal is positive, the output of the inverting amplifier is negative, and vice versa

### Analyze a Unique Inverting Op Amp: A Summing Amplifier

You can extend an inverting amplifier to more than one input to form a summer, or summing amplifier. An inverting amplifier takes an input signal and turns it upside down at the op amp output.

### Analyze a Unique Inverting Op Amp: An Op Amp Subtractor

There’s a special op amp circuit —a differential amplifier, or subtractor — that is actually a combination of a noninverting amplifier and inverting amplifier. A differential amplifier multiplies the difference

### Linear Dependent Sources and Circuit Analysis

Dependent sources are used to model transistors and the operational amplifier IC. A dependent source is a voltage or current source controlled by either a voltage or a current at the input side of the

### Find Thévenin’s and Norton’s Equivalents for Complex Source Circuit

A Thévenin or Norton equivalent circuit is valuable for analyzing the source and load parts of a circuit. Thévenin’s and Norton’s theorem allow you to replace a complicated array of independent sources

### Gauge Maximum Power Transfer Using Thévenin’s and Norton’s Theorems

Thévenin’s and Norton’s theorems can be used to analyze complex circuits by focusing on the source and load circuits. One application of Thévenin’s and Norton’s theorems is to calculate the maximum power

### Find Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits Using Source Transformation

A Thévenin or Norton equivalent circuit is valuable for analyzing the source and load parts of a circuit. Thévenin’s and Norton’s theorems allow you to replace a complicated array of independent sources

### Analyze Circuits with Three Independent Sources Using Superposition

Use superposition to analyze circuits that have lots of voltage and current sources. Superposition helps you to break down complex linear circuits composed of multiple independent sources into simpler

### Analyze Circuits with Two Independent Sources Using Superposition

Use superposition to analyze circuits that have lots of voltage and current sources. Superposition helps you to break down complex linear circuits composed of multiple independent sources into simpler

### Analyze Circuits with Dependent Sources

You can analyze circuits with dependent sources using node-voltage analysis, source transformation, and the Thévenin technique, among others. For analyzing circuits that have dependent sources, each technique

### Describe a JFET Transistor with a Dependent Source

Transistors are amplifiers in which a small signal controls a larger signal. One type of transistor is a junction field-effect transistor (JFET). JFET transistors provide a good picture of how transistor

### Circuit Analysis and Mesh-Current Equations

Mesh-current analysis (loop-current analysis) can help reduce the number of equations you must solve during circuit analysis. Mesh-current analysis is simply Kircholff’s voltage law adapted for circuits

### How to Work with Voltage Sources in Node-Voltage Analysis

Voltages across each device in a circuit can be described using node-voltage analysis (NVA). Node-voltage analysis reduces the number of equations you have to deal with when performing circuit analysis

### Simplify Circuit Analysis by Transforming Sources in Circuits

With transformation, you can modify a complex circuit so that in the transformed circuit, the devices are all connected in series or in parallel. By transforming circuits, you can apply shortcuts such

### Staying Safe: Electronics Safety Rules

Safety first! Electronics is a potentially dangerous hobby. Any circuit that works with 230 VAC power from an electrical outlet is especially dangerous and can kill you. Here are some basic safety guidelines

### Remembering Electronic Resistor Colour Codes

Resistor values are marked with small coloured stripes. The first two stripes represent numeric values and the third stripe is a multiplier. The fourth stripe gives you the resistor’s tolerance; that is

### Using Popular Timer ICs: 555 and 556 Pinouts

The 555 is one of the most popular integrated circuits (ICs) ever made. When you use it, you need to be aware of the purpose of each of the eight pins in the 555 package. You may also occasionally use

### Understanding LM741 Op-Amp Integrated Circuit Pinouts

Operational amplifiers are one of the most common types of IC. The LM741 is a popular single op-amp IC, and you need to understand the purpose of each of its pins to make your electronics projects run

### Getting Mathematical with Ohm’s Law in Electronics

Sometimes in electronics you have no alternative but to whip out your calculator and do a little maths. The most likely reason is to calculate how much resistance you need for a given situation, how much

### Closed, Open, and Short Circuits

You need a closed path, or closed circuit, to get electric current to flow. If there's a break anywhere in the path, you have an open circuit, and the current stops flowing — and the metal atoms in the

### How to Calculate Power in an LED Circuit

The amount of energy consumed by an electronic component is known as power (abbreviated P), measured in watts (abbreviated W). Here is the equation for calculating power: