Chemistry Concepts

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Common Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry

In organic chemistry, functional groups (or reactive centers) are small structural units within molecules that dictate how most of the compound's chemical reactions occur. Know these common functional [more…]

Periodic Table of Elements

If you’re studying organic chemistry, the periodic table is an important tool. The elements and their atomic numbers are listed and grouped together by their properties — making it easier to remember without [more…]

How to Name a Chemical Compound

Someone who doesn't know chemistry might think that compounds should already have names, but you know differently. The following steps take you through the process of building a chemical name, using compound [more…]

How to Balance a Chemical Equation

When you balance equations in chemistry, you change only the coefficients in front of the chemical symbols. Never everchange the subscripts in the chemical compounds. The following steps show the balancing [more…]

Basic Exponential and Scientific Notation for Chemistry

In chemistry, you often use exponential notation, which is simply using exponents to express a number. Scientific notation is a specific form of exponential notation that uses powers of 10, and numbers [more…]

Analyzing Atomic Structure for Chemistry

Chemistry deals with atoms, which are composed of subatomic particles, which differ in mass and charge. Altering the numbers of these particles can alter the element or isotope identity of an atom. The [more…]

Key Chemistry Formulas

In chemistry, you deal with all sorts of substances in all sorts of stages — solid, liquid, and gas. The following list offers some key equivalencies and often-used chemistry formulas: [more…]

Chemistry Concepts: Energy Levels and Orbitals

A lot of chemistry is explained by the sharing and trading of electrons between atoms. Understanding how electrons are arranged in an atom is a building block of Chem I. [more…]

Digging the Mole Concept in Chemistry

The mole (abbreviate mol and sometimes called Avogadro's number) is a conversion number that allows a chemist or chemistry student to move from the microscopic world of atoms, ions, and molecules to the [more…]

Identifying Isotopes through Representations

In Chem I, you may have to identify isotopes, which are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. The following representation allows you to identify a specific isotope of an element [more…]

Common Measurement Conversions for Chemistry

In order to succeed in your Chem I class, you need to have a firm understanding of basic chemistry measurements and how to convert them from one measurement to another. Following are some important conversions [more…]

The Basic Chemistry of Acids and Bases

A lot of chemistry requires you to understand the difference between acids and bases. An acid is a substance that donates an H+ ion to another chemical species called a base. A [more…]

The Combined Gas Law and Ideal Gas Law

When studying the properties of gases, you need to know the relationships between the variables of volume (V), pressure (P), Kelvin temperature (T), and the amount in moles [more…]


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