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Looking at the Left and Right Hemispheres of the Brain

The brain is composed of two nearly mirror-image lobes called the left and right hemispheres. The left hemisphere receives most inputs from and controls mostly the right side of the body. This hemisphere [more…]

Neuroscience For Dummies Cheat Sheet

The most complex structure in the universe (that we know of) is the three pound mass of cells within your skull called the brain. The brain consists of about 100 billion neurons, which is about the same [more…]

Understanding Evolution Terminology

Evolution is the process by which populations and species change over time and the principles of evolution explain why life on Earth is so diverse and why organisms are the way they are. You need to understand [more…]

Spanning Evolution: The Hominid Family Tree

Fossils for a large number of hominid species, including pre-human primates and human primates, have been found by paleontologists. As shown in this chart, various hominid species have been identified [more…]

Common Latin and Greek Roots in Biology Vocabulary

Students in introductory biology classes typically have to learn more new vocabulary words than students taking a foreign language! The good news is that many science vocabulary words use the same Greek [more…]

Biology Basics: Important Components of Eukaryotic Cells

For biology students, knowing the components of eukaryotic cells and how they work is fundamental to understanding how organisms function. This table provides an overview of the most important eukaryotic [more…]

Biology Workbook For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Biology is the study of life, from tiny bacteria to giant redwood trees to human beings. Understanding biology begins with knowing some of the basics, such as eukaryotic cell structure and common Latin [more…]

What Defines an Ecosystem?

The basic unit of study in environmental science is the ecosystem. An ecosystem consists of a biological community and its physical environment. Here are the most important things you need to know about [more…]

How to Characterize a Population of Living Things

Scientists who study living organisms examine them from different perspectives of complexity. The simplest level is the individual. Each individual is a member of a population. Each [more…]

Plant and Animal Facts to Remember for the AP Biology Exam

The following list contains some of the more challenging info on plants and animals that you might encounter on the AP Biology Exam. Study this list as long as you need to — if you remember this information [more…]

Atoms, Molecules, and Biochemistry to Know for the AP Biology Exam

You'll find taking the AP Biology test much less stressful if you know some key concepts that will be on the exam. Here are some important concepts to remember about atoms, molecules, and biochemistry: [more…]

Cells and Cell Cycles to Study for the AP Biology Exam

As you're studying for the AP Biology exam, keep these facts about cells and cell cycles close at hand and review them often. You never know, you may end up memorizing them all, which will help you ace [more…]

DNA Techology: Copying a Gene with PCR

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a process that can turn a single copy of a gene into more than a billion copies in just a few hours. It gives medical researchers the ability to make many copies [more…]

Biology Basics: The Basics of Muscles

Muscle tissues are extremely important to your body — and not just because they help you look good at the pool. Muscles do many things to keep you alive and going strong: [more…]

Ten Tips for Getting an A in Biology

Science classes, like biology, may be among the most challenging classes you'll ever take. Getting an A in biology means looking at some of the major issues you'll face and having tips for dealing with [more…]

How Plants Pull and Transport Water

Several processes work together to transport water from where a plant absorbs it (the roots) upward through the rest of its body. To understand how these processes work, you first need to know one key [more…]

How Plants Send Sugars from Sources to Sinks

Plants use a special tissue called phloem to transports sap — a sticky solution that contains sugars, water, minerals, amino acids, and plant hormones. Sap moves through phloem via [more…]

How Plants Send Signals with Plant Hormones

Plant cells communicate with one another via messengers called hormones, chemical signals produced by one type of cell that travel to target cells and cause changes in their growth or development. Plant [more…]

The Parts and Types of Plants

Like animals, plants are made of cells and tissues, and those tissues form organs, such as leaves and flowers, that are specialized for different functions. Two basic organ systems exist in plants: [more…]

Types of Tissue in Plants

Plant organs are made of plant tissues, which are made of plant cells. All plants have tissues, but not all plants possess all three of the following types of tissues: [more…]

Plant Reproduction

Plants are very successful organisms, growing in almost every environment on Earth. Part of their success is due to the fact that they can reproduce both asexually and sexually. [more…]

Identify the Parts of the Male Reproductive System

Knowledge of the organ systems involved in human sexual reproduction helps you learn about the reproduction process. The following figure illustrates the male reproductive system: [more…]

Follow the Female Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles

Oogenesis (the egg-producing process), which includes the ovarian and menstrual cycles, begins very early in the life of a human female, when she’s still a developing fetus! In fact, a human female is [more…]

Human Biology: Fertilization through Birth

Fertilization, the joining of sperm and egg, typically occurs in the fallopian tube, after sperm have made the long swim up through the vagina, past the cervix, and through the uterus. Fertilization brings [more…]

Neurons and Nerves

Neurons are cells that form the core of nervous systems because they have the ability to receive and transmit signals. Neurons have a unique elongated shape and consist of three main parts: [more…]


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