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How a Human Kidney Works

In humans, the kidneys are the organs that produce urine. There are two kidneys, one on each side of your back, just below the ribs. Like most organs in the body, the function of the kidneys is closely [more…]

What's the Basic Structure of Nerves?

The nervous system sends messages from nerve endings to the brain and from the brain to cells, tissues, and organs. Cells of the nervous system sometimes secrete chemical messengers instead of neurotransmitters [more…]

What Are Stem Cells?

You’ve probably heard about stem cells in the news and may wonder exactly what that scientific term means. Stem cells are the body’s master cells. Stem cells can renew themselves [more…]

Explore Current Stem Cell Treatments

Scientists have been working with human adult stem cells — the stem cells found in specific tissues — for more than 40 years, compared to only a dozen years for human embryonic stem cells. As a result, [more…]

Stem Cell Research for Patient Treatment Plans

Stem cell scientists use stem cells to understand normal cell physiology, cell function, and development, as well as the mechanisms and progression of various diseases. Scientists hope to use this valuable [more…]

Stem Cells For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Scientists use various types of stem cells in the lab to gain a better understanding of how normal human development works and to look for new methods of treating a wide range of devastating human ailments [more…]

Important Parts of Eukaryotic Cells

All eukaryotic cells have organelles, a nucleus, and many internal membranes. These components divide the eukaryotic cell into sections, with each specializing in different functions. Each function is [more…]

Cellular Respiration in Molecular Biology

Cellular respiration is your body's way of breaking down food molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and making their stored energy available to the cell. Here's a brief overview: [more…]

Bioinformatics Data Formats

When you're using the Internet to help with your bioinformatics project, you come across data in all sorts of different formats. The following table can help you understand common bioinformatics formats [more…]

Where to Find Bioinformatics Data

Bioinformatics combines information technology and molecular biology, so it makes sense that the Internet is the main arena for pursuing bioinformatics information. The following list offers links to helpful [more…]

Bioinformatics Web Sites for Analyzing DNA/RNA Sequences

The bioinformatics Web sites in the following list offer help in analyzing DNA and RNA sequences. And, in the marriage of information technology and molecular biology that is bioinformatics, this type [more…]

Bioinformatics Web Sites for Analyzing Protein Sequences

With bioinformatics you can explore molecular biology using information technology. The links to the Web sites in the following list focus on protein sequences. Some offer searchable databases, others [more…]

Bioinformatics For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Bioinformatics is the marriage of molecular biology and information technology. Web sites direct you to basic bioinformatics data and get down to specifics in helping you analyze DNA/RNA and protein sequences [more…]

Key Concepts in Human Biology and Physiology

The study of biology includes the study of human beings. The biological functions of humans are similar to those of many animals. Like animals, humans need to acquire oxygen and energy in order to survive [more…]

Natural Selection and Biological Evolution

When studying Biology, you'll hear about biological evolution, which refers to the change of living things over time. Charles Darwin concluded that biological evolution occurs as a result of natural selection [more…]

Biological Reproduction and Cell Division

Biology is all about life. And life is really all about continuation, and in order for life to continue, reproduction has to occur at the cellular level so that genetic information [more…]

Biology For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Biology is the study of the living world. All living things share certain common properties: They are made of cells that contain DNA; they maintain order inside their cells and bodies; they regulate their [more…]

Examining the Brain’s Four Lobes: Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, and Occipital

The neocortex is divided into four major lobes: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe, and occipital lobe. These lobes are further divided into different regions. The frontal lobes are [more…]

Examining the Thalamus and the Limbic System

The neocortex interacts with the rest of the brain primarily through a structure called the thalamus. The thalamus, which is underneath (and hierarchically below) the neocortex, functions like a command [more…]

The Types and Function of Neurons

The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), the peripheral nervous system (the sensory and motor neurons), and the autonomic nervous system [more…]

Understanding the Role of the Neocortex

When you look at a human brain from the top or sides, almost everything you see is neocortex. It’s called “neo” because it is a relatively recent invention of mammals. Prior to mammals, animals like reptiles [more…]

Looking at the Left and Right Hemispheres of the Brain

The brain is composed of two nearly mirror-image lobes called the left and right hemispheres. The left hemisphere receives most inputs from and controls mostly the right side of the body. This hemisphere [more…]

Neuroscience For Dummies Cheat Sheet

The most complex structure in the universe (that we know of) is the three pound mass of cells within your skull called the brain. The brain consists of about 100 billion neurons, which is about the same [more…]

Understanding Evolution Terminology

Evolution is the process by which populations and species change over time and the principles of evolution explain why life on Earth is so diverse and why organisms are the way they are. You need to understand [more…]

Common Latin and Greek Roots in Biology Vocabulary

Students in introductory biology classes typically have to learn more new vocabulary words than students taking a foreign language! The good news is that many science vocabulary words use the same Greek [more…]


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