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The Human Digestion Process (or, What Happens after You Eat Food)

Digestion is the process of changing food into a form that the body can absorb and use as energy or as the raw materials to repair and build new tissue. Digesting food is a two-part process that's half [more…]

How Cells Work: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Knowing how cells work is critical in the genetics field. All living things consist of one or both of two cell types: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The basic biologies of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are similar [more…]

Defining the Science of Biology

Biology literally means the study of life. There are many different types of living organisms, environments, and combinations of genetic material. The science of biology includes all information related [more…]

Basic Equipment Used in Biology Experiments

The daily routine of a biologist involves the use of basic equipment in their biology experiments — such as microscopes, test tubes, beakers, and Bunsen burners — as well as high-tech scientific equipment [more…]

Career Opportunities in Biology

Some career opportunities in the field of biology include corporate scientists, university scientists, and specialists in selected fields. Biology scientists do not just mix chemicals in different types [more…]

Where to Find Science Research Information

Scientists publish their research information. They must circulate their scientific work, flaws and all, for other scientists to see. Other scientists may be working on similar projects and could benefit [more…]

Understanding Cells: The Basic Units of Life

Cells make up the smallest level of a living organism such as yourself and other living things. The cellular level of an organism is where the metabolic processes occur that keep the organism alive. That [more…]

How Cell Substances Transport through the Plasma Membrane

The plasma membrane surrounding animal cells is where the exchange of substances inside and outside of cells takes place. Some substances need to move from the extracellular fluid outside cells to the [more…]

How Cell Mitochondria Convert Food into Useable Energy

Food is the fuel for the body. The mitochondria are the converters; they convert the fuel into useable energy. When food is digested, or broken down into its smallest molecules and nutrients, and air is [more…]

How to Distinguish Elements, Atoms, and Isotopes

For a better understanding of biology, you should understand some core chemistry terms, such as elements, atoms, and isotopes. All matter is composed of [more…]

What Are Acids, Bases, and pH All About, Anyway?

When studying biology, you must grasp how reactions can form acids or bases, as well as what effect that has on pH. A basic understanding of chemistry is important in biology, because living things are [more…]

How to Decipher the Meaning of Molecules, Compounds, and Bonds

To understand biology, you must understand how atoms can join together to form compounds or molecules. Both molecules and compounds are held together by bonds. [more…]

The Basics of Organic Chemistry

When you explore biology, you’ll find that many processes are constantly occurring in living organisms. The study of organic chemistry — which focuses on carbon molecules — is central to all living organisms [more…]

Storage Forms of Glucose in Organisms

When carbohydrates from the foods you consume are digested, glucose is the smallest molecule into which a carbohydrate is broken down. Glucose molecules are absorbed from intestinal cells into the bloodstream [more…]

The Important Role of Cellulose to Plant and Animal Life

Cellulose is a polysaccharide (a form of carbohydrate) that has a structural role in animals and plants. In plants, cellulose is the compound that gives rigidity to the cells. The bonds between each cellulose [more…]

The Protein Functions that Keep Your Body Running

Proteins run nearly every metabolic process in your body, and they are part of the structure of every cell in your body. Here are a few examples.

Outwardly, the protein keratin makes up the outer layers [more…]

The Truth about Fats and Lipids

You need fats — technically called lipids — to survive, in addition to other large molecules including carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. Yet, many people avoid fats in their diet. [more…]

Lipoproteins and Your Risk for Heart Disease

Lipoproteins — such as HDLs and LDLs — are compounds made from a fat (lipid) and protein. Too many LDLs can increase your risk for heart disease. The job of lipoproteins is to carry cholesterol around [more…]

What Are Blood Group Antigens All About?

Blood group antigens are carbohydrates that are attached to proteins or lipids. An antigen is a substance foreign to the body that causes an immune response. An [more…]

How Animals Get Nutrients and Oxygen

Animals require nutrients (from plants and other animals) and oxygen in order to survive. Modern-day conveniences have made it easier for humans to acquire food. Humans may think that they only have to [more…]

How Animals Mechanically Break Down Food

Different groups of animals eat different foods, but what do animals physically do with the food they consume? The different methods of breaking down food all make up [more…]

How to Count and Cut Calories

The optimal number of calories you need to maintain a healthy weight is based on how much energy you need when you are resting and how much energy you use when you are working. This amount varies for people [more…]

How Minerals and Vitamins Relate to Living Things

Vitamins are organic molecules that occur in all living things naturally. Minerals are inorganic molecules that are part of the earth. Because plants grow in the earth, some minerals are in plants, too [more…]

How Digestive Systems Work in Plants and Animals

Once an organism — a plant or animal — ingests (or absorbs) food, the organism’s digestive system immediately starts breaking down the food to release the nutrients. [more…]

How Animals Absorb Nutrients and Dispose of the Rest

Nutrients that the body can use are absorbed into the cells lining the small intestine. The rest of the material that cannot be further digested or used passes onto the large intestine. [more…]

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