Bones, Muscles & Joints

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Minerals, Hormones, and Your Ever-Changing Bones

You might think of your skeleton as a solid, unchanging structure that the softer bits of your anatomy cling to, but that isn't entirely the case. Bone is constantly reshaping itself in a complex process [more…]

What’s the Difference between a Strain, a Sprain, and a Fracture?

You jumped high and came down hard, but you got the interception. Unfortunately, you also got a very sore and swollen ankle. Now you’re left wondering if you’ve got a strain, a sprain, or fracture. [more…]

Bones and Joints in the Thoracic Region

The thoracic cage is made up of bones and cartilage along with joints and an assortment of muscles and other soft tissues. The part that opens into the neck is called the superior thoracic aperture, and [more…]

Muscles in the Thoracic Region that Help You Breathe

Clinical anatomy identifies several muscles of the shoulder attached to the thoracic cage. The scalene muscles elevate the 1st and 2nd ribs and bend the neck to the side. So what’s left? The muscles of [more…]

The Physiology of the Pelvis

The pelvic organs are housed in the pelvic girdle, which is made up of the bones, joints, and muscles just inferior and posterior to the abdomen and above the lower extremities. The pelvic cavity is the [more…]

The Bones in the Neurocranium

The skull, or more officially, the cranium, has bones that protect your brain. The bones that protect the brain are strong and have very little movement at the joints. Their main purpose is to protect [more…]

The Bones of the Human Face

The bones of the cranium don’t just protect your skull. Some delicate bones form your beautiful face. The facial bones don’t move much, except for the jawbone [more…]

Muscles of the Face

The face is so expressive. Facial muscles let you show how happy, frown when you’re displeased, or show your flirtatious side with a wink. You can show the world you’re angry or sad or maybe even bored [more…]

The Anatomy of the Temporomandibular Joint

The temporomandibular joint is a modified-hinge type of synovial joint made up of the condylar process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. The surfaces of the joint are lined [more…]

The Prevertebral Muscles of the Neck

Many muscles are located in the deep structures of the neck. The seven cervical vertebrae form the bony framework of the neck. The cervical vertebrae have a lot of joints that allow for movement in several [more…]

Analyzing a Typical Vertebra

Most vertebrae are more or less the same, although they have a few differences of sizes and shapes. For example, the cervical region has two atypical vertebrae that defy the norm. A typical vertebra is [more…]

How the Vertebrae Are Grouped

The vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae located in five regions. The cervical, thoracic, lumbar and cervical regions are well known, but there is a coccygeal region too with 4 vretebrae. The vertebrae [more…]

The Anatomy of the Spine: The Vertebral Joints

The joints of the vertebral column include the joints between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae and joints between the adjacent vertebral arches. Two types of joints in the neck are given special attention [more…]

Muscles of the Back

Back muscles are divided into two specific groups: the extrinsic muscles that are associated with upper extremity and shoulder movement, and the intrinsic muscles that deal with movements of the vertebral [more…]

The Surface Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Back Muscles

Examining the surface anatomy of the back includes inspecting the skin, noting the symmetry (or asymmetry) of the back and its muscles, and assessing the curvatures of the spine. Knowing what landmarks [more…]

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle

The bony structures of the shoulder include the pectoral girdle and one arm bone. These bones have some interesting landmarks, including various bumps and projections. The shoulder and arm bones can be [more…]

The Joints of the Shoulder Girdle

The shoulder and arm bone are joined together by ligaments. The joints allow the shoulder to move your arm up and down, in circles, in front, and toward the back. You may think of the shoulder as one joint [more…]

Muscles of the Shoulder and Arm

The muscles that provide the movement for the shoulder and upper arm include the anterior muscles in the front, the posterior muscles in the back, and the shoulder muscles that are sort of in between. [more…]

The Bones and Joints of the Elbow and Forearm

The elbow and the forearm are made up of only three bones and two joints. Half of the elbow is formed by the humerus, the lone bone of the arm. The forearm contains two bones; the radius is on the lateral [more…]

Muscles of the Elbow and Forearm

The muscles of the arm are responsible for the movement of your elbow and, by extension, your forearm. Five muscles originate on either the humerus or the scapula and insert onto the bones of the forearm [more…]

Bones of the Wrist and Hand

The human hand is an anatomical wonder. Each hand and wrist has 27 little bones. Think about all the different movements your wrists, hands, and fingers can make, and you can probably understand why they [more…]

Joints of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers

The large number of bones in the hand and wrist makes for a large number of joints, too. To pass your clinical anatomy course you need to know all about these joints that help you move your wrist, wave [more…]

The Extrinsic Muscles of the Wrist and Hand

The wrist makes larger movements, and the fingers and thumbs make many fine movements. So you have some longer muscles that run from the forearm (the extrinsic muscles) and lots of little hand and finger [more…]

The Intrinsic Muscles of the Wrist and Hand

Moving your hands, fingers and thumbs, requires a lot of muscles. So you have some longer (extrinsic) muscles that run from the forearm and lots of little hand and finger muscles [more…]

Bones of the Hip and Thigh

Understanding the anatomy of the pelvic girdle and thighs is important for knowing how people walk and move; you can then diagnose a variety of ailments, especially those related to exercise. The hip bones [more…]


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