Arteries, Veins, Nerves & Lymphatics

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What Are the Major Cranial Nerves?

Twelve pairs of cranial nerves branch off the brain or brainstem and innervate many different places in the body. Some of them have motor functions, some have sensory functions, and a few have both. Here [more…]

Arteries: Moving Blood Away from the Heart

Your heart is responsible for circulating blood throughout your body via arteries. The aorta and pulmonary arteries are large vessels, but their branches [more…]

Capillaries and Veins: Returning Blood to the Heart

Capillaries feed the heart: They are the tiniest vessels that bridge the smallest arteries to small veins called venules. From there, blood passes into veins that serve as tributaries to larger veins before [more…]

What Is the Cardiovascular System?

The cardiovascular system is part of the larger circulatory system, which circulates fluids throughout the body. The circulatory system includes both the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. [more…]

Overview of the Respiratory System

The respiratory system like the cardiovascular system is all about moving stuff around. The cardiovascular system brings blood to every part of the body while the respiratory system focuses on the air [more…]

Clinical Overview of the Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system includes a system of lymphatic capillaries, vessels, nodes, and ducts that collects and transports lymph, which is a clear to slightly yellowish fluid, similar to the plasma in blood [more…]

The Endocrine System: Controlling Hormone Production

The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce hormones and release them into the blood. The hormones cause certain reactions to occur in specific tissues. The endocrine system affects a large [more…]

The Nerves and Blood Vessels in the Thoracic Region

The thoracic region of the body showcases the remarkable complexity of human physiology. Nerves, blood vessels, and arteries in this critical region enable sensation and allow blood to flow throughout [more…]

The Surface Anatomy of the Thorax

Clinical anatomy students learn to use imaginary lines and bony landmarks on the front and back of the thorax to describe locations of the anatomical structures. The lines cover the front, side, and back [more…]

Arteries and Veins that Feed the Heart

It needs its own nutrient and oxygen supply so it can keep beating every day, all day long. A complex system of veins and arteries keep the heart supplied with blood and allow the blood to circulate through [more…]

Nerves, Blood Vessels, and Lymphatics
of the Abdomen

The skin, muscles, and other structures of the abdominal wall need nerve supply, blood, and lymphatic drainage. The abdominal wall surrounds the abdominal cavity. It covers the trunk from just below the [more…]

How to Examine the Abdominal Wall

When you examine a patient’s abdomen, being able to associate the surface of the abdominal wall with the organs found inside the abdominal cavity is helpful. Well, good news: You can do this with some [more…]

Nerves in the Abdomen

The abdomen holds a number of important organs, but its physiology includes an important network of nerves as well. The organs of the abdomen are under the control of the autonomic nervous system. The [more…]

What Is the Peritoneum?

The peritoneum is a membrane made up of two layers. One layer lines the cavity and the other layer lines the organs. The peritoneum helps support the organs in the abdominal cavity and also allows nerves [more…]

The Nerves of the Pelvis

The pelvis is easy to access during physical examination, so it can tell you a lot if you understand its anatomy. The pelvic girdle is innervated by nerves that come from the sacral plexus, coccygeal plexus [more…]

Arteries and Lymphatics of the Pelvis

The pelvis is home to the reproductive organs, which differ depending on gender. A complex system of blood vessels and arteries circulate blood throughout the region. The area also houses lymph nodes that [more…]

The Surface Anatomy of the Pectoral Girdle

The most proximal part of the upper extremity is the shoulder, or pectoral girdle. Its joints allow for a great amount of movement for the arm that’s attached to it. You’ll want to know the anatomy of [more…]

Arteries that Supply Blood to the Brain

Arteries deliver a substantial amount of blood and oxygen to the brain. Blood from the brain is drained by cerebral veins, dural venous sinuses, and the great cerebral vein [more…]

Motor and Sensory Facial Nerves

The motor nerves for the muscles of facial expression come from the facial nerve (CN VII). The muscles of mastication (the ones that move your mouth and jaw when you eat) are innervated by the mandibular [more…]

Veins, Arteries, and Lymphatics of the Face

The physiology of the human face is complex. A series of arteries and veins provide circulation of blood to the various tissues of the face. And of course the face includes some lymphatic tissues. Start [more…]

Muscles, Nerves, and Blood Vessels in the Human Eye

Muscles enable you to move your eyes. Ocular nerves allow you to interpret what you see and blood vessels keep your eyes oxygenated. Six muscles, collectively called the extraocular muscles, move the eyeball [more…]

Nerves, Blood Vessels and Lymphatics of the Oral Cavity

The oral cavity is enervated by cranial nerves. Arteries and veins allow for adequate blood flow, and lymph nodes need to be drained, just like all other parts of the human anatomy. The basic of the nerves [more…]

Nerves and Blood Vessels in the Root of the Neck

Anatomically, the root of the neck is the area where the neck attaches to the thorax (the part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen, including the chest). It’s home to several important nerves [more…]

The Pharynx, Larynx, and Trachea

The neck is covered by the subcutaneous tissue of the neck, or superficial fascia, just under the skin. Beneath that layer you’ll find the pharynx, larynx, and trachea. These anatomical structures help [more…]

The Anatomy of the Spinal Cord: The Nerves and the Meninges

The spinal cord serves as an information pathway between your brain and the peripheral nerves that serve the rest of your body. It’s quite delicate and requires a lot of protection. Your spinal cord has [more…]


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