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Arteries, Veins, and Lymph in the Hip and Thigh

The joints and muscles of the hips and thighs require a lot of blood flow, which provides oxygen and nourishment, especially when you’re physically active. Lymph is also drained away by the lymphatic structures [more…]

Clinical Anatomy: Cartilage in the Knee Joint

The knee joint is basically a hinge joint that lets you flex and extend the leg, although there is a small amount of gliding movement as well. Although it’s a large joint, it isn’t as stable as many other [more…]

Ligaments and Bursae of the Knee

Bones and cartilage make up the knee’s structure but without ligaments and bursae the knee would be unable to bend properly. Ligaments stabilize and strengthen the knee and bursae provide padding so the [more…]

Muscles That Move the Knee and Ankle

Most of the muscles that move the knee come from the hip and thigh, whereas most of the muscles of the leg actually move the ankle. Some of the muscles that flex and extend the hip also flex and extend [more…]

Nerves, Blood Vessels, and Lymphatics of the Knee and Leg

The knee and leg require nerve supply and circulation, which are provided by a number of nerves blood vessels (arteries and vein) and lymphatics. Most of them can be found in an area called the popliteal [more…]

Bones in the Foot and Ankle

In some ways, the bones in your ankles and feet resemble the bones in your wrist and hand, but instead of carpals and metacarpals, you’ve got tarsals and metatarsals and phalanges in your toes. But your [more…]

Joints of the Ankle and Foot

Your feet and ankles need to be sturdy, but they also need to be agile enough to adapt to slipping off a curb or doing some fancy footwork on the tennis court. Good thing they have as many joints as they [more…]

Muscles that Move the Ankle and Foot

Many muscles do the work of moving the ankle and foot. Some of the muscles that move the foot start higher up in the leg, and smaller muscles work right in the foot itself. The leg is divided into compartments [more…]

Clinical Anatomy: The Muscles of the Foot

You can divide the foot muscles into groups based on their locations — either in the sole of the foot (the bottom or plantar area) or the dorsum on the top of the foot. Most of the muscles are in the sole [more…]

Nerves in the Foot

The joints and muscles of the ankle and foot need to be maintained properly. Nerves provide the ankle and foot with sensation and also tell the muscles when to contract and when to relax. The ankle and [more…]

Blood Vessels and Lymphatics of the Foot and Ankle

The joints and muscles need to be maintained properly. Blood is carried into the ankle and foot via the arteries and returned to the heart in the veins. Lymphatic fluid is drained via the lymphatic vessels [more…]

Surface Anatomy of the Knee and Foot

Foot and leg problems send a lot of people to medical professionals. Although a surface examination doesn’t tell the whole story, understanding the anatomy of the leg and foot will help you assess problems [more…]

Ten Helpful Mnemonics for Clinical Anatomy Terms

Learning (and memorizing) the names and locations of anatomical structures isn’t easy, so clinical anatomy students often develop mnemonics, or memory tricks, to make it a little easier. These mnemonics [more…]

Clinical Anatomy: The Bones of the Knee and Leg

The bones of the knee and the leg include the femur, which is the large thigh bone; the tibia and fibula, which are the leg bones between the knee and ankle; and the patella, which is sometimes called [more…]

The Microbiome: An Important Part of Human Physiology

From almost the moment they were discovered, bacteria have had a rotten reputation. “Germs,” people called them. “Bugs.” People scrubbed them away, developed drugs to kill them, cursed them for causing [more…]

Moving beyond Mother Nature: The Anatomy and Physiology of Reproduction

Assisted reproduction goes above and beyond people’s usual ideas about how humans make babies. Here is a glimpse into what humans have been doing to help Mother Nature perpetuate the species. [more…]

10 Terrific Online Resources for Studying Anatomy and Physiology

No matter how much you study or how many Latin and Greek roots you memorize, it’s inevitable that some aspects of anatomy and physiology will leave you dazed and confused. But if you study within reach [more…]

Discovering New Parts of the Human Anatomy

Think people know everything there is to know about human anatomy? Think again. Researchers announced the discovery of two new body parts in 2013 alone. [more…]


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